Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease caused by a mutation
In cystic fibrosis, mucus builds up because of a malfunctioning protein
This leads to difficulty breathing, lung infections and can cause death
Daily antibiotics and physical the
Is something humans do to other organisms
It is done to save the genetic information of extinct animals
It is also done to mass produce an organism with a desired trait
Cloning to save genetic info
The Pyrenean Ibex was cloned in 2003 from a froze
The part of the cell cycle where the contents of the nucleus divide
This happens so that there is enough genetic information (chromosomes)
for two new cells
In interphase the DNA molecules replicate, forming sister chromatids which
get joined into
Biological viruses disrupt instructions stored in genes by attaching to the
DNA and interfering
As a result things can get misread or copied incorrectly
Other examples are:
Radiating (x rays or UV rays)
Atoms that have a covalent bond are sharing one or more electrons.
Carbon Dioxide has covalent bonds, as does water!
Water is made of 2 Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom. The Oxygen
shares 1 electron with each of the hydrogens (though
How does electrical force work?
Two positive charges repel each other
Two negative charges repel each other
A negative and a positive object are attracted to each other
Charged objects (positive or negative) are attracted to neutral objects
Parts of an atom
Electrons: negative particles around the nucleus
Nucleus: centre of atom, made of protons and neutrons
Protons: positively charged parts of nucleus
Neutrons: parts of nucleus with no charge
Why are elements studied in chemistry?
Physical vs Chemical change
Change is everwhere.
Fresh baked cookies are made from ingredients that mix together
Cell phones are powered by chemical changes in batteries
Ice cream flavours are chemicals, and created by chemical changes (yum!)
Other Common Elements
Sodium (Na) - soft metal that reacts with water
Chlorine (Cl) - yellow-green gas that is highly toxic
Mercury (Hg) - liquid at room temperature metal.
Silver (Ag) - precious metal mined in British Columbia
Silicon (Si) - brittle, gre