Hypothesis Testing
Introduction
Be sure to read through the definitions for this section before
trying to make sense out of the following.
The first thing to do when given a claim is to write the claim
mathematically (if possible), and decide whether the

Correlation
Sum of Squares
We introduced a notation earlier in the course called the sum of
squares. This notation was the SS notation, and will make these
formulas much easier to work with.
Notice these are all the same pattern,
SS(x) could be written as

Binomial Probabilities
Binomial Experiment
A binomial experiment is an experiment which satisfies these four
conditions
A fixed number of trials
Each trial is independent of the others
There are only two outcomes
The probability of each outcome remains co

Estimating the Mean
You are estimating the population mean, mu, not the sample mean,
x bar.
Population Standard Deviation Known
If the population standard deviation, sigma is known, then the
mean has a normal (Z) distribution.
The maximum error of the est

Conditional Probability
Conditional Probability
Recall that the probability of an event occurring given that another
event has already occurred is called a conditional probability.
The probability that event B occurs, given that event A has already
occurr

Introduction to Estimation
One area of concern in inferential statistics is the estimation of the
population parameter from the sample statistic. It is important to
realize the order here. The sample statistic is calculated from the
sample data and the po

Central Limit Theorem
Sampling Distribution of the Sample
Means
Instead of working with individual scores, statisticians often work
with means. What happens is that several samples are taken, the
mean is computed for each sample, and then the means are us

Measures of Variation
Range
The range is the simplest measure of variation to find. It is simply
the highest value minus the lowest value.
RANGE = MAXIMUM - MINIMUM
Since the range only uses the largest and smallest values, it is
greatly affected by extre

Measures of Position
Standard Scores (z-scores)
The standard score is obtained by subtracting the mean and
dividing the difference by the standard deviation. The symbol is z,
which is why it's also called a z-score.
The mean of the standard scores is zero

F-Test
The F-distribution is formed by the ratio of two independent chisquare variables divided by their respective degrees of freedom.
Since F is formed by chi-square, many of the chi-square properties
carry over to the F distribution.
The F-values are a

Counting Techniques
Fundamental Theorems
Arithmetic
Every integer greater than one is either prime or can be expressed
as an unique product of prime numbers
Algebra
Every polynomial function on one variable of degree n > 0 has at
least one real or complex