Alexander Spirkin. Fundamentals of Philosophy. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990.
The book offers a systematic exposition of the foundations of dialectical and historical
materialism. It begins with deliberations on the nature of philos
1.1 Hazardous and Toxic Materials in Our
Our modern technological society makes use of a large number of
substances that are hazardous and toxic. The benefits of using these materials must
be weighed against the risks associated with
PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTION OF MAN
The aim of the theme is: to represent one of the fundamental problems of philosophy the problem of
mans being; to show the development of philosophical concepts of man, unique position of man in the
world, the se
OUTLINE THEORY OF DIALECTICS
The aim of the theme is: to learn the main principles of dialectics as the theory of development
through explication of the concept of dialectics; its historical forms and principles, what laws of dialectics
lie in a
PHILOSOPHY OF ANTIQUITY
The aim of the lecture is: to reveal main features and basic laws of development of ancient philosophy,
to define general features of leading philosophical directions and schools in that period, and to clear up
their place, role an
PHILOSOPHY OF THE MIDDLE AGES
The purpose of the theme is: to show specific character of Medieval philosophy problems,
consideration of the basic stages of its development and its place in European philosophy and culture.
Key words of the theme: theocentr
THE SUBJECT OF PHILOSOPHY AND THE RANGE OF PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS.
1. Philosophy as a specific type of knowledge.
2. Philosophy as a theoretical basis of worldview.
3. Philosophy as a general methodology.
Man is a speculative being. He looks at
GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY
The aim of the theme is: to represent one of the most important periods in the development of
philosophical knowledge in Europe and its influence on world culture.
The key words of the theme are: phenomenon, nomen, a-priori, a-
Basic concepts and categories:
Philosophy an area of intellectual activity which is based both on a special type of
thought and on the autonomy of its subject-matter man in his relation to the world;
Worldview a system of generalized sensibilities, of int
PHILOSOPHY OF THE RENAISSANCE
The aim of the theme is: to show originality and deep revolutionary changes in all spheres of human
life, which took place in the Renaissance Epoch, when new historically progressive forms of production
and public relations w
2.1.1. Philosophy: Range of Problems, Significance
and Functions in Society
Key terms and basic concepts: agnosticism, culture, dialectics, dualism, idealism, materialism,
metaphysics, monism, philosophy, pluralism, spirituality, world, worldview.