Anatomy and Physiology
Somatic and Special Senses
Detect environmental changes and
trigger nerve impulses that travel on
sensory pathways into the CNS for
processing and interpretation.
Two Categories of Receptors
Somatic Senses: touch
The Peripheral Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure
1. Determine a subjects pulse.
2. Determine a subjects blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer and relate systolic and diastolic
pressures to events of the cardiac cycle.
3. Investigate the e
Hemostasis (blood halting) depends on 3 interrelated and overlapping sets of events:
1constriction of the blood vessels and formation of a platelet plug
2 blood clotting
3 clot retraction
I. Clotting Time Test
In order for blo
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The organs of the digestive system are in
two main groups:
(1)organs of the alimentary canal (aliment =
(2)accessory digestive organs
The Alimentary Canal
The alimentary canal is also called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract o
THE URINARY SYSTEM
The bean-shaped kidneys extending
approximately from T12 to L3.
The kidneys receive some protection from
the lower part of the rib cage.
Kidney: External Anatomy
Three layers of s
The Living Fabric
Epithelial tissue, or an epithelium (plural:
epithelia), is a sheet of cells that covers a body
surface or lines a body cavity (epithe = laid on,
Epithelia form boundaries between different
The word skeleton comes from the Greek
word meaning dried-up body or
The human skeleton is a triumph of design
and engineering that puts most
skyscrapers to shame.
It is strong, yet light, and almost perfectly
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
The Living Units
Cells are the structural units of all living
things, from one-celled generalists like
amoebas to complex multicellular
organisms such as humans, dogs, and
The human body has 50 to 100 trillion of
Blood is the river of life that surges within
us, transporting nearly everything that
must be carried from one place to another.
It is the only fluid tissue in the body.
It a specialized type of connective tissue in
which living blood cells, the