Components of Matter notes
Element - the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical
properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be
broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
Shapes of Molecules notes
H atoms form one bond
C atoms form four bonds
N atoms form three bonds
O atoms form two bonds
Surrounding halogens form one bond
If there are not enough electrons for the central atom to attain an oct
Transfer and Conversion of Energy
Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
When energy is transferred from one object to another, it appears as work
Thermochemistry is a branch of thermodynamics that d
Covalent Bonding notes
Valence Bond Theory
The basic principle of VB theory: A covalent bond forms when the orbitals
of two atoms overlap and a pair of electrons occupy the overlap region.
The space formed by the overlapping orbitals can accommodate a
Models of Chemical bonding notes
Types of Chemical Bonding
Ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons and is usually observed
when a metal bonds to a nonmetal.
Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons and is usually observed
when a nonmeta
Quantum Theory notes
The Wave Nature of Light
Visible light is a type of electromagnetic radiation.
The wave properties of electromagnetic radiation are described by three
- frequency (), cycles per second
- wavelength (), the distance a wave t
Mass Relationships notes
The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that contains the same
number of entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.
One mole (1 mol) contains 6.022x1023 entities (to four significant figures).
Gases and The Kinetic Molecular Theory notes
An overview of the Physical States of Matter
Distinguishing gases from liquids and solids
Gas volume changes significantly with pressure.
Solid and liquid volumes are not greatly affected by pressure.
Keys to Chemistry notes
Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter
undergoes, and the energy associated with these changes.
Matter anything that has both mass and volume - the stuff of the
Major Classes of Chemical Reactions notes
Water as a solvent
Water is a polar molecule
since it has uneven electron distribution
and a bent molecular shape.
Water readily dissolves a variety of substances.
Water interacts strongly with its solutes an
Quantum Numbers and The Exclusion Principle
Each electron in any atom is described completely by a set of four quantum
numbers. The first three quantum numbers describe the orbital, while the
fourth quantum number describes electron