Graduate employability and unemployment are issues that have given rise to
many policy implications for higher education in many developing countries
such as Malaysia. The employability of graduates depends on individual
factors, the labour market and org

Vant Hoff Equation
The vant Hoff equation can be used to estimate
Kc or Kp at a given temperature, provided that Kc
or Kp are known at some other temperature:
K c 2 H 1 1
ln
K c1
R T1 T2
T1 and T2 have the units of K, and H is the
enthalpy of reacti

Chemical Equilibrium
Chapters 15 and 19 (Petrucci et al.)
The nature of chemical equilibrium
Consider the following reversible reaction
CO (g) + 2 H2 (g) CH3OH (g)
CH3OH (g) CO (g) + 2 H2 (g)
When chemical equilibrium is reached, the
concentrations of a

MATH 116 Fall 2016
Practice Solutions 7
1. For the below functions
(a) Find the intervals of increase or decrease
(b) Find the local maximum and minimum values
(c) Find the intervals of concavity and inflection points
(d) (if applicable) find the vertical

Method of the initial rates
In the method of initial rates, the instantaneous rate of
reaction is determined at the beginning of the reaction,
before reactant concentrations have changed
significantly
Consider the reaction:
NH4+ (aq) + NO2- (aq) N2(g) +

Raoults Law
Raoults Law states that the partial pressure of
each component in an ideal solution is
proportional to the mole fraction of that
component in the solution:
Pi = xiPvap,i
Pvap,i is the vapour pressure of pure substance I
xi is the mole fractio

The reaction quotient
Consider the general reversible chemical reaction (not in
chemical equilibrium):
aA+bB=cC+dD
The initial concentrations of reactants and products are
[A]init, [B]init, [C]init, and [D]init
The reaction quotient for this reaction is d

Freezing point depression (DTf)
Freezing point depression
Freezing point depression
An equation similar to the one used to
calculate boiling point elevation (DTb) is
used for freezing point depression (DTf):
DTf = -Kf m
Notice that Kf depends only on so

Example 1
In a galvanic cell, one half-cell consists of a zinc strip
dipped into a 1.0 M solution of Zn(NO3)2. In the second
half-cell, solid indium adsorbed on graphite is in contact
with a 1.0 M solution of In(NO3)3. Indium is observed to
plate out as t

Electrochemistry
Chapters 5 and 20 (Petrucci et al.)
Oxidation states (Petrucci, section 3-4)
The oxidation state (or number) is related to the
number of electrons that an atom gains, loses,
or otherwise uses when combining with other
atoms in a compound

MATH 116 Review Problems 2
(Absolute Extrema, Mean Value Theorem, lHopitals Rule, Riemann Sums, Integrals,
Area, Volume, Work)
1. Find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum of g(x) = tan1 (8x 2x3 ) on
[3, 0].
2. Evaluate the following limits.
sin x x

MATH 116 Review Problems
(Newtons method, Related Rates, Optimization, Curve Sketching, Linear Approximations)
1. Thomas Malthus was an economist that predicted that the population grows exponentially while the food supply only grows linearly. If p(t) giv

Collision theory of gaseous reactants
For the bimolecular elementary reaction,
A + B products
to occur, it is necessary that molecules of A and B collide.
Will all colliding molecules react?
The rate of molecular collisions per volume can be
estimated by

Galvanic cells
Cu (s) Cu2+ (aq) + 2 e
Ag+ (aq) + e Ag (s)
Cu (s) + 2 Ag+ (aq)
Cu2+ (aq) + 2 Ag (s)
Definitions
Oxidation takes place at the anode. Since electrons flow from the
anode, it shows negative charge.
Reduction takes place at the cathode. Sinc