Describe the following taxonomic methods:
a. GC Ratios
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of
nitrogenous bases on a DNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four
Methods used in strain improvement:
Method not involving foreign DNA: Mutagenesis
Mutagenesis is a process of treatment given to microorganismwhich will cause an
improvement in their genotypic and phenotypic performances.
- Spontaneous Mutation:
Enumerate the factors that affect microbial growth. Enumerate methods used in measuring of
a) Factors that affecting microbial growth:
a. Solutes and Water activity: Changes in osmotic concentration of the surroundings can affect
1. Compare and contrast primary and secondary metabolites and give an example of each. List at
least two molecular explanations for why some metabolites are secondary rather than primary.
Bacterial metabolism can be classified into three major categories
1. Genes were discovered before their chemical nature was known. Define gene without mentioning
its chemical nature. Of what is a gene composed?
The relationship between genes and proteins has been well established since
the early 1900's.
George Beadle an
1. Describe the regulation of two different operons, one having an effector that is an inducer and the
other having an effector that is a corepressor.
The Lactose operon , An Inducible Operon
The lactose (lac) operon E. coli is an inducible operon and the
List three major types of industrial products that can be obtained with microorganisms and give two
a. Penicillins- Another name for this class is the beta-lactam antibiotics, referring to their
structural formula. The penicillin cla
Binomial nomenclature (also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system
of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on w
1. Describe the central dogma of molecular biology.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It
first stated by Francis Crick in 1958. This states that once information has pas
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MINDANAO
College of Arts and Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences
BIO 613 (Advanced Microbiology)
Name: JAN ARISLYN F. PINEDA
DATE: October 22, 2016
I. Microbial Growth
Examine the graph describing the rel