The water content of the fill soil has an effect on its
ability to be well compacted with reasonable effort.
Soil that is too dry is difficult to compact.
Material that is too wet may difficult to spread
properly and to compact.
If soil is too dry, wa
SOIL
STABILIZATIO
N
USE OF NATURAL AND CHEMICAL
ADDITIVES
SOIL STABILIZATION
- refers to the procedure in which a special
soil, a cementing material, or some other
chemical material is added to a natural soil
material to improve one or more of its
propert
FREEZING
TECHNIQUES
(GROUND FREEZING OR SOIL FREEZING)
Ground freezing is a construction technique used in circumstances where soil
needs to be stabilized so it will not collapse next to excavations, or to prevent
contaminates spilled into soil from being
SOIL
STABILIZATI
By: GROUP 5
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF SOIL
STABILIZATION?
Higher resistance (R) values
Reduction in plasticity
Lower permeability
Reduction of pavement thickness
Elimination of excavation, exporting
unsuitable material and importing n
Application of Soil
Mechanics Theories
PART III
GROUP II/BSCE-4C
Caissons
It is the structural box or chamber that is
sunk or built in place by systematically
excavating below the bottom unit, which
thereby descends to the final depth. An
open caisson may
1
R
E
T
P
CH A
G
N
I
B
M
U
PL
1-1
Introduction
Plumbing is defined as the art and
science of installing pipes, fixtures
and other apparatus to convey
and support water in buildings and
to dispose and discharge waste
water and other liquids, gases and
othe
QuestionExcerptFromNATIONALPLUMBINGCODEOFTHEPHILIPPINES
Sizeofwaterpipingshallbebasedonthetotal
Q.1)
_
A.
B.
C.
D.
water
consumption
water
demand
water
potability
noneofthe
above
Waterclosetbowlsfor_useshallbeelongatedbowltypesequippedwith
Q.2)
openfronts
FOUNDATION
Introductory Concept
For many humankind structures, it is the earth underlying structures that provides the
ultimate support. Foundation it is the lowest part of the building structure and has a
distinct focus on soil structure interaction.
SOI
FIELD PROCEDURES
-GENERAL
CONSIDERATION,METHODS,A
ND TECHNIQUES
THE FIELD PROCEDURE FOR
CONSTRUCTING A
COMPACTED FILL IS SIMPLE IN
PRINCIPLE.
SELF-PROPELLED
SCRAPER
-SCRAPER IS A LARGE PIECE OF
EQUIPMENT WHICH IS USED IN
MINING,CONSTRUCTION,AGRICULT
URE A
The 3 Main Types of Rocks
Sedimentary rocks can be categorized into three groups based on
sediment type. Most sedimentary rocks are formed by
the lithification of weathered rock debris that has been physically
transported and deposited.
Main characteristi
Crankshaft and Dampers Design
Crankshafts are applied everywhere it is necessary to
convert reciprocating motion into rotational one or inversely.
In engines and compressors they are commonly used.
Piston combustion engine in operation generates vibration
Second and Higher Order
Differential Equations
1 Constant Coefcient Equations
The methods presented in this section work for nth order equations.
1.1 Homogeneous Equations
We consider the equation:
a0y(")(t) + a1y("1)(t) + - - - + any(t) : 0 (1.1.1)
where
ENGINE BALANCE
Refers to those factors in the design,
production,engine tuning, maintenance and
the operation of anenginethat benefit from
being balanced.
What is engine tuning?
Is
an adjustment, modification of the
internal combustionengineor
modificati
Higher Order Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients
The solutions of linear differential equations with constant coefficients of
the third order or higher can be found in similar ways as the solutions of
second order linear equations. For an n-th ord
HIGHER ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Higher Order Equations
Consider the differential equation
y (n) (x) = f (x, y(x), y 0 (x), . . . , y (n1) (x).
(1)
1.1. The Existence and Uniqueness Theorem
Suppose x0 is a given initial point x = x0 , and suppose a0
DuPont Freon
REFRIGERANTS
Technical Information
T-12 SI
Thermodynamic
Properties of
DuPont Freon 12
(R-12)
Refrigerant
Thermodynamic Properties of DuPont Freon 12 (R12)
SI Units
Tables of the thermodynamic properties of DuPont Freon
12 (R-12) have been de
C A S E ST U D Y
Liberty Ship Failures
During World War II, 2,710 Liberty
cargo ships were mass-produced by
the United States to supply food and
materials to the combatants in Europe
Case study illustrates one role that materials scientists and engineers
PALAWAN STATE UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering
VISION
A premier State University in Southeast Asia that provides excellent and relevant higher
education for sustainable development.
MISSIO
MATERIAL ENGINEERING
MATERIALS ARE PROBABLY MORE DEEP-SEATED IN OUR CULTURE THAN MOST OF US REALIZE.
TRANSPORTATION, HOUSING, CLOTHING, COMMUNICATION, RECREATION, AND FOOD
PRODUCTION VIRTUALLY EVERY SEGMENT OF OUR EVERYDAY LIVES IS INFLUENCED TO
ONE DEGRE
Drawing Bohr Models
Bohr Models
1.
2.
3.
Bohr models are used to predict
reactivity in elements.
Reactivity refers to how likely an
element is to form a compound with
another element.
When looking at Bohr models, we look at
its valence electrons (the elec
Financial Ratios
Categories
1. Liquidity ratios
2. Asset Management Ratios
3. Debt Management Ratios
4. Profitability Ratios
5. Market values Ratios
which give us an idea of the firms ability to pay off debts that
are
maturing
a year.
which
give uswithin
Chapter 6
Interest Rates
Cost of Money and Interest Rate
Levels
Determinants of Interest Rates
The Term Structure and Yield
Curves
Using Yield Curve to Estimate
Future Interest Rates
6-1
What four factors affect the
level of interest rates?
Production
opp
What four fundamental factors
affecting the cost of money?
Production Opportunities
Time Preference for Consumption
Risk
Inflation
COST OF money- The amount of profit that could
be generated from interest payments on a given
amount of money if it were inv
2. Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against
unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no
search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue
Chapter 8
Problem I
1. Input Measure - Percentage of Completion Method (Cost to Cost Method)
2008:
Contract price
P
1,800,000
Actual costs to date
P 450,000
Estimated costs to
1,200,000
complete
Total estimated project
1,650,000
costs
Estimated total gros
Chapter 5
Problem I
1.
A, B, C and D Partnership
Statement of Liquidation
January 1, 20x4 to May 31, 20x4
Cash
Balances before
Liquidation
January
- Realization
- Payment of
expenses
- Payment
of
liabilities
Balances after Jan
February
- Realization
- Pay
Problem I
1.
Ben, capital
Pet, capital (50% x P700,000)
Chapter 3
350,000
350,000
2. The total capital of BIG Entertainment Galley remains at P1,480,000. The total amount
paid by Pet to Ben does not affect the partnership and Pet does not become a partner