Researchers have identified three sets of conditions that were needed for cooperative
breeding among birds: 1) they took a long time to mature and were likely to live long.
2) tends to be found in lineages that evolved under ecological conditions favorin
Chemicals from endocrine glands that affect other organs:
Organizational effects- tissue differentiation and development. (e.g., androgens
and pre-natal male genital development)
Activational effects- environment can trigger processes.
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA)
Common term in evolutionary psychology
involves what our past adaptations may have been, to help explain our current
behaviors. predispositions selected for in past?
Difficult! = how estimate past adaptatio
1. Darwin's Dilemma of Altruism
Example: Lemmings, arctic rodents, commit suicide?
Altruistic Behavior- benefits another individual while putting oneself at
Group Selection- animals behave for the good of the species (or group)
IV. Correlations: Easy to calculate, difficult to interpret
Positive correlation. two variables change in same direction (both increase, or
Negative Correlation. as one variable increase, other decreases.
Necessary: scientists always in
Example 2: Sperm Competition
Many insects, females have sperm storage organ, can use at different times. Good
for females, but for males? Army ants- contact guarding, Some damselfliesscoop-like penis, many insects- mating plugs, males mounting males- pl
Some Introductory comments
Scientific explanations are not:
but instead. require systematic study, empirical data
Plus, anthropology requires cross-cultural and/or comparative
Michael Phelps- 22 medals; 18 gold (8 in 2008) due to Nature (biology)? Or
Unusual Biology: 6'4tall; wingspan 6'7; rel. short legs for height
size 14 feet, big hands, hyper-extension of elbows, knees, and ankles