Study Guide for Exam 4
CHAPTER 12 PERSONALITY
1. Definition of personality (pg 384)
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that characterize the way
an individual adapts to the world.
2. Four approaches/theories of personali
1-Learning, Associative Learning
What is learning?
A systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs though experience.
Behaviorism A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting
the importance of such ment
Study Guide for Exam 2
Terms and ideas to know about:
WHO GETS WHAT?
1. -Three processes in development (Examples)
Physical: changes to individuals biological nature
Cognitive: changes to
Study Guide for Exam 1
Terms and ideas to know about:
1)Definition of Psychology
-The scientific study of behavioural and mental processes?
2)Definition of Behavior
-anything one can directly observe
3)Definition of Mental processes
1. 3 basic types
a. Classical conditioning
b. Operant conditioning
c. Observational or social learning
2. Classical conditioning
a. Definition: The process of learning in which an originally neutral stimulus
becomes associated with a particular p
Key Questions- Perception
What types of visual perception involve critical periods of exposure?
How do various visual constancies help us navigate our world?
How does having two (vs. one) eye assist us?
How do artists use perceptual cues to create the
What are we going to do today?
Gender differences in:
Men help more (d = +.34)
Women receive more help (d = -.46)
Decreasing over time
Helping Behavior: Moderators
Gender of recipient
Presence of onlookers
Exam 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Exam
Psychology- Science of the behavior and the mind
o Behavior- observable actions of a person or animal
o Mind- Abstract concept of thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories,
Control and experiment
Description: atypical sample, biased
Case study 1
DNA, Protein, metabolism, no role in neura
o Behavioral Disorder of Childhood that occurs at the average age of 10
o Associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior, including the
Deekie the Monkey steals grapes!
1) This Youtube video is based on positive punishment. I found it in Module 22,
operant and social learning.
2) The monkey is a great example of punishment. The video is illustrating positive
English novelist E.M. Forster once said, How do I know what I think until I see what I
say? This quote, in essence, sums up the experience that Ive had with my writing this year in
UCWR. Coincidentally, it is also the firs
Stress: What causes it, what does it do to us and what can we do about it?
What things made you stressed about coming to Loyola?
How much were you looking forward to starting college?
What did you do to deal with your stress and which of
Models of therapy based on models of psychopathology and personality
Historically, mentally ill viewed as a danger to society
Goals of treatment has gradually shifted from containment to rehabilitation
Types of Psychotherapy
Myth of mental illness by Szasz
Labeling/ diagnosis is way of stigmatizing savants
Psychopathology characterized by behavior that is:
Distressing (to the individual)
Dysfunctional (either for the individual or for society)
Phenomenology: emphasis on the primacy of immediate experience
Focusses attention on the present instead of the
The distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling and acting that
characterize a person's responses to life situations.
Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and theory of personali
Motivation and Emotion
A process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed
What influences motivation?
Neural and other internal and external forces
What are these internal forces?
Memory- 3 basic processes
Encoding- Getting information into the system by way of neural code
Storage- Needs to be stored
Retrieval- We need to be able to find and retrieve it
Three Stage Memory Model
Sensory Memory- Briefly holds on to incoming in
History: Measuring Intelligence
Intelligence= biological capacity (perceptual sensory and motor abilities)
Assessed reaction times and sensory acuity
later research contradicted these measures
Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
Chapter 7- Learning
3 Basic Types
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Operant Conditioning (rewards, B.F Skinner)
Observational or Social Learning (Learn by watching)
Applying psychology to your everyday life
Ex. if you love mexican foo
Sensation and Perception: Pt. 2
Perception= active, creative process in which raw and sensory data are organized and
Integration and Interpretation
Two Basic Processing Strategies
Bottom-up processing: system takes in individual e
Sensation and Perception
How does sensitivity of our senses compare with dogs?
In what way does signal detection theory inform our understanding of a doctor's
decision regarding a risky surgery?
How can people stand the smell of living on th
Soma-cell body, contains biochemical structures that keeps the neuron alive and the
nucleus which has genetic information.
Dendrites- collect information from neighboring neurons and sends them to other
Axon- Conducts electrical
Research Methods (Chapter 2)
When conducting psychological research, how would you decide when to use a case
study as opposed to a naturalistic observation?
How do we demonstrate causality in psychology research?
Why is counterbalancing imp
Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and the mind and relations between
Behavior- observable actions and responses
Mind: internal states and processes that are not directly observable
Must be inferred from observable, measurable responses.
Physical & Cognitive Development
Do various skills emerge at the same time or in the same order across children?
What kinds of research methods are used to study development?
What is the age of viability? (when a fetus can survive outside th
How can you detect a fake smile?
How do we determine an infant's ability to recognize themselves in the mirror?
What did we learn from monkeys about the nature of attachment?
Why do we study friendships?
How do we assess a
Historical Perspectives (Chapter 1)
What were the intellectual roots of the discipline of Psychology?
Are we just blank slates?
Does any psychological perspective account for the role of culture
on defining normal?
What are the defining deb