Is an infectious particle
Consists of genes packed in a protein coat
Cannot reproduce or carry out metabolism outside of a host cell
Discovery of viruses
1. Extracted sap from a tobacco plant with a disease
2. Passed sap through a filter that
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Living is work to live, cells must generate fuel (ATP)
- Overall process:
Organic compounds + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + Energy
- If glucose is used as fuel
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 +6H2O
An Introduction to Metabolism
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Sites of energy conversion
-cells that have mitochondria all eukaryotic cells
- found in plants and eukaryotic algae
Why is cell division important for life?
-properties of life
Cell division: reproduction
The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism
Cell division: growth and development
Central to development of a multicellular organism
Solar energy to chemical energy
How do living organisms obtain energy?
Break down organic compounds
Where do living organisms obtain the organic compounds?
Heterotrophs- consumers of the biosphere
- Organic compounds from environment
Parallels between the behavior of chromosomes and the behavior of Mendels factors
For both chromosomes and genes
Present in pairs in diploid cells
separate/segregate during meiosis
Fertilization restores the paired condition
1. The initial signal
2. The receptor that binds the signal
3. The signaling molecule or molecules that transmit the message
4. The effector or effectors that result in a short-term or long-term cellular change
Inheritance of Traits
What principles account for transmission of traits?
Blending hypothesis (early 1800s)
Particulate hypothesis specific individual units of inheritance that were
maintained from parent to offspring, not mixed into something new
Genes = segments of DNA that transmit genetic information
Genes and Chromosomes
- Each eukaryotic chromosome = linear DNA molecule + associated proteins
- Located on chromosomes
- Specific location = locus
- Acquired from parents
The endomembrane system includes
All connected and communicate with eachother
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
2 types rough and smooth
Algae and Plants
What do they have in common?
All living things are made of cells
All cells come from pre-existing cells
All cells contain DNA as their genetic material
Have a membrane
At some point in their life have DNA
Length of some
Loyola University of Chicago
Biology 101 F16
Instructor: Dr. Alfred Diggs
Study Guide for Exam 2
a. Understand the relative size of cells. The range of size from a 100
nanometers to a 100 micrometers
a. 1 nm= 10^-6 mm
b. 1,000,000 nm= 1 mm
Loyola University Chicago
EXAM 1 REVIEW
a. Know the levels of biological organization.
a. Kom Pow Chicken On Fat Guys Shirt
b. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
b. Gain an understanding of how org
Study Skills Primer
One major purpose of college science courses is to prepare students for their future careers.
The scientific and health related fields of the 21st century require an incoming workforce that is
knowledgeable, but more importantly, innov
Questions for Regrade: You must work on these without input from Dr. Petrella or Michael. You
can work in groups and use any materials you need to figure out the questions. Write out a list of
your answer and bring it to class on Monday. You will use the
1. In an organism with a diploid number of 8, a gamete has _ chromosomes, a liver cell has
_chromosomes, and a sperm cell at meiotic anaphase I has _ chromosomes.
A) 8; 8; 8
B) 8; 4; 8
C) 8; 4; 4
D) 4; 8; 8
E) 4; 4; 4
2. The transcription initiation site
1. Which of the following statements about the 1918-19 influenza pandemic is false?
a. Compared with most flu viruses, the virus of the pandemic hit young adults particularly hard.
b. There were more deaths from this virus than there were combat deaths in
Question 1 (1 point)
One of the main reasons that obesity contributes to type 2 diabetes is because:
Question 1 options:
a. inflammation in the tissues triggers them to resist insulin.
excess glucose builds up in the tissues.
c. increased blood lipids
The neuroglial cells that form a myelin sheath around axons are
a) the oligodendrocytes.<
b) the microglia.
c) both the Schwann cells and the oligodendrocytes.*
d) the Schwann cells.<
e) the ependymal cells.
Why is it not normally possible for action po
BISC 1015 - Principles of Human
Anatomy and Physiology
BISC 2016 - Anatomy and
Physiology for the Health Sciences 1
Lecture 4 Review Questions
Which of the following imparts a
lubricating quality to saliva?
BIO 211 Practice Exam 2
77. Land plants differ from green algae (Chlorophyta) in that plants _.
a) have cell walls containing cellulose.
b) are unicellular.
c) have chloroplasts.
d) are heterotrophs.
*e) have alternation of generations.
80. What is the cl
Control of Gene Activity in Prokaryotic Cells
The activity of genes is controlled by the cell and the environment.
Inducible genes are inactive unless circumstances cause them to be activated (turned on).
Repressible genes are active unle
Experimental design in which data from various unmanipulated samples or populations are compared,
but in which variables are not controlled or even necessarily identified.
An experiment in which a sample is div
Concept 2.1 Atomic Structure Is the Basis for Life's Chemistry
Matter is composed of atoms. Each atom consists of a positively charged nucleus made up of protons
and neutrons, surrounded by electrons bearing negative charges.
The number of protons in the
Which of the following discoveries caused the modification of the one geneone protein
hypothesis to the one geneone polypeptide hypothesis?
Proteins made up of two or more chains
None of the a
1. Ernst Mayr's definition of biological species
A) applies to all organisms.
B) does not take into account geographically isolated members of a species.
C) only applies to animals.
D) only applies to groups of organisms living in the same areas.
Actin, a protein found in almost all eukaryotic cells, is expressed in most cell types at a fairly constant level. Thus, the gene
that codes for actin can be considered what kind of gene?
What are transcription factors?