Transcription and RNA Processing
-Studies have shown that genetic changes can manifest themselves as changes in the amino acid
sequence of a protein.
-The information contained in the genome must specify the primary structure of each protein
-Nucleotides are best known as the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
-Nucleotides are involved in almost all cell activities either alone or in combination with other
-Some nucleotides (such as ATP) function as
-In 1935 James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick proposed their model of the structure of
-Every living organism contains a set of instructions for every step required to construct a replica
of itself. This
Recombinant DNA Technology
-Recombinant DNA Technology includes methods for isolating, manipulating, and amplifying
-Also called genetic engineering
-Some of the benefits include increased knowledge of basic cellular proce
Chapter Nine Boxes
Box 9.1 Common Names of Fatty Acids
Laurate-present in oil from the laurel plant
Myristate-oil from nutmeg
Palmitate-from palm oil
Stearate-from French stearique referring to fat from steers, or tallow
Arachidate-present in oil from p
The Genetic Code
-Genetic alphabet is four letters: A, T, G, and C
-These four letters encode 20 amino acids
-Codons=the letters that code for the specific amino acid
-The first codon discovered was UUU which codes for pheny
DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
-Since genetic information is carried in the DNA, it follows that the transfer of information form
a parental cell to two daughter cells requires exact duplication of DNA, a process known as DNA
Chapter 20 Box
Box 20.2 Molecular Links Between DNA Repair and Breast Cancer
-Every year in north America 180,000 human females are diagnosed with breast cancer.
-Approximately 1/5 of these new cases have a familial or genetic component and 1/3 (12,000)
Chapter 17 Boxes
Box 17.1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Can Be Treated With Asparginase
-Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is caused by the proliferationof malignant T-cell
lymphoblast due, in most cases, to a mutation caused by mistakes in ge
-The primary role of enzymes is to enhance the rates of reactions
-A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the attainment of equilibrium. A catalyst may be
temporarily changed during the reaction, but it is unchanged in the overall proc
-Conformation=spatial arrangement of atoms that depends on the rotation of a bond or bonds.
-The conformation of a molecule can change without breaking covalent bonds. Configurations
of a molecule can be changed only by breaking and re-forming c
Proteins-What they do!
1. Function as enzymes
2. Bind other molecules for storage and transport of oxygen(hemoglobin and myoglobin)
3. Provide support and shape to cells (tubulin, actin, collagen)
4. Mechanical work such as movement (flagella) a
-Its always D for sugars and L for proteins.
-Know fischer, Haworth and chair confirmation of all sugars in blue ink
-anomeric carbon-the carbon that is attached to the most oxygens.
-alpha and beta
Alpha=anomeric hydroxyl is down.
Jessica Sayers, Brian Westenberger, Andrew Hodge
Intestinal motility is a vital physiological process which involves the mixing and moving
of food (chime) through the intestine. Intestinal motility involves two major type
In the body a stretch in the smooth muscle cells would increase the tone and amplitude. This
normally occurs by a bolus of food entering the small intestine from the pylorus of the stomach,
this bolus p
Application of Stretch
Addition of Curae