Course Syllabus ENST 334 Environmental Toxicology - Spring 2013
Book: Principles of Ecotoxicology. Fourth Edition. Walker CH, RM Silby, SP Hopkin, DB Peakall.
2012. CRC Press an imprint of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. ISBN 13:978-1-4398-6266-7.
Environmental Toxicology Spring 2013
WHAT WILL WE LEARN (HOPEFULLY!)
What is environmental toxicology and HOW DO WE USE IT?
Make the connection from molecular to community/ecological.
Learn the basics of enviro
Intro to Toxicity Testing
Terrestrial Ecotoxicology and
Like a q u a tic to xic ityte s ts ,th e re a re standard m a m m a l,b ird ,
p la nta n d in ve rte b ra te te rre s tria le c o to xic o lo g ic a lte s ts .
Me th o d o lo g ie
The Fate of Metals and Radioactive
Isotopes in Contaminated Ecosystems
Chapter 4 Walker et al.
Four factors control the fate of inorganic pollutants in
(iii) Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation f
Biochemical Effects of Pollutants
Chapter 7 Walker et al.
When pollutants enter living organisms, they cause a variety of Important changes.
II. Non protective
MFOs (Mixed function oxydases)
The Fate of Organic Pollutants in
Individuals and in Ecosystems
Chapter 5 Walker et al.
Important to note: Although concern now is anthropogenic
compounds, the evolutionary history of detoxification is based
on an organisms response to natural compounds
Physiological Effects of Pollutants
Chapter 8 Walker et al.
Pollutants may damage organisms with lethal consequences GONE!
Damage machinery of reproduction or resource acquisition and uptake .
Reduction in resource uptake reductions birth rate and/or
Intro to toxicity Testing 2
Short-term chronic test, continued
No te la b o ra te .S h o rtte rm (7 d a y) ,d a ta c o lle c te d with ina we e k,e a s y
to s e e a nd q ua ntifie d e nd p o ints ,d a ilys ta tic re ne wa l
Examples of short-term tests to
Chapter 10 Walker et al.
Important - Biomarkers - biological response to xenobiotic at
individual level or below demonstrating a departure from the normal
Biochemical, physiological, histological, morphological (outward appearance
Whole Effluent Toxicity
As mentioned in the earlier lecture on the Clean Water
The problem with using the whole water quality criteria
for single chemicals approach for regulating effluents?
What about the 10s of thousands of chemicals that are
Introduction to Environmental Toxicology
What is environmental toxicology?
The study of the impacts of pollutants upon the structure and
functions of ecological systems
Emphasis upon ecological structures, from the molecular
What is an Ecological Risk Assessment?
Ecological risk assessment is a process for
systematically evaluating how likely it is that adverse
ecological effects may occur as a result of exposure
to one or more stressors.
What is the Purpose of an Ecological
Environmental Contaminants Part 1
Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons
- PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, etc.
Read article posted on Canvas:
Pesticide exposure in womb may hurt your child's
PESTICIDES Built to Kill!
Includes algicides, fungici
History of Water Quality Protection in the
Early thoughts (late 1800s and early 1900s)
Water resources were adequate to assimilate any
and all waste that we could generate.
THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION
Late 1800s inland waterways
Intro to T o xic ity
T o rp ro p rtie
Toxicity!T h e p ro p e rty e s tinge1 s o fa m a te ria lth a tp ro d uc e s a
h a rm fule ffe c tup o na b io lo g ic a ls y s te m .
Toxicant! Ma te ria lth a tp ro d uc e s th is b io lo g ic a le ffe c t.
Contaminants associated with the pulp an paper
Contaminants associated with Wastewater
(Sewage) Treatment Plants
Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
Contaminants associated with the pulp an paper industry
Routes by which pollutants enter ecosystems
Three major routes as the consequence of human activity:
1. Unintended release in course of human activity
e.g., nuclear activities (Japan, twice WWII and 2011