Ingested nutrients, ions and water are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Complex carbohydrates, proteins and fats must be
digested into substances which can be absorbed and assimilated by the body. The digestive process begins in th
A characteristic of the nervous system is that signals are conducted from place to place by nerve impulses: action potentials that travel
along a nerve fiber. All sensation, thought and movement is mediated by coded patterns of nerve impulses. The propert
Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds: Background
The heart is a dual pump that circulates blood around the body and through the lungs. Blood enters the atrial chambers of the heart at a
low pressure and leaves the ventricles at a higher pressure. The high a
Sensory Physiology: Background
Conventionally, five senses are described: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch (visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile senses
respectively). This is clearly an oversimplification. Additional sensory modalities
The peripheral circulation
The arterial system functions as a pressure reservoir. Blood leaves the arterial system continuously through the capillaries, but enters
only intermittently from the heart. The ventricles contract during systole; the semilunar v
In 1935, J. R. Stroop (1897 - 1973) illustrated that information the brain received is processed using different pathways. The Stroop
Test showed conflicts (or interference) occurring when specific types of information were processed. Words are read autom
The skeleton provides support and articulation for the body. Bones act as support structures and joints function as pivot points.
Skeletal, or striated, muscles are connected to the bones either directly or by tendons, strong bundles of
Skeletal muscles do the majority of the work for locomotion and support of the animal skeleton. Each muscle is made up of individual
muscle fibers organized in fascicles (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Skeletal muscle structure.
1.) Skeletal muscles are composed of fibers grouped together into _.
2.) True/ False. A motor unit is comprised of a single motor neuron and a single muscle fiber that it innervates.
3.) _ is released at the neuromuscu
The pressure in the arteries varies during the cardiac cycle. The ventricles contract to push blood into the arterial system and then relax
to fill with blood before pumping once more. This intermittent ejection of blood into the arteries is balanced by a