Basic concepts: atoms
Speaker: Prof. Chi-How Peng
1.2 Fundamental particles of an atom
1.3 Atomic number, mass number, and isotopes
1.4 Success in early quantum theory
Success of classical quantum theory
values are listed in
Table 2.2 ofH&S
CI/B \ \
Use the VSEPR model to obtain the molecular shapes. The method ofworking is
as in answer 2.17. After you have the shape of the molecule , if necessary, use
Statistical Analysis Data Treatment and
two types error in the jury room:
1. an innocent person can be convicted
2. a guilty person can be set free
In our justice system, we consider it a more serious error
to convict an innocent per
2.1 (a) F 2
. - .
(d) H 2Se
(h) PF s
2.2 Allocate electrons to form N-H or N-F b
l 1 Basic P atoms
shows that the atomic number, Z, is 24 and the mass number for the isotope is 50.
Number of protons = Number of electrons = Z = 24
Number of neutrons = Mass number - Z = 5 24=2
Sampling, Standardization, and Calibration
A chemical analysis uses only a small fraction of the available sample, the
process of sampling is a very important operation.
Knowing how much sample to collect and how to further subdivide the
Aqueous Solutions and
Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria
Most analytical techniques require the
state of chemical equilibrium, at which
the rate of forward process and that
of the reverse process are equal.
Random Errors in Chemical Analysis
6A The nature of random errors
Random, or indeterminate, errors can never be totally eliminated and are
often the major source of uncertainty in a determination.
Random errors are caused by the many uncontroll