Sec. 1.1: 9, 13,
Sec. 1.3: 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17
Sec. 1.4: 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 16
Sec. 1.5: 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, 17, 20, 23, 26, 28
Sec. 4.1: 2, 4, 9, 11, 13
Sec. 4.3: 1, 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19
Sec. 4.6: 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, 20
P.164, Review Questions: 11, 21, 23
Chapter 9, Problem 1
(a) How is raw pig iron extracted from iron oxide ores? (b) Write a typical chemical reaction for the
reduction of iron oxide (Fe2O3) by carbon monoxide to produce iron. (c) Describe the basic oxygen
process for converting pig iron in
Chapter 10, Problem 1
Define and differentiate polymers, plastics, and elastomers.
Chapter 10, Solution 1
A polymer is the long-chain molecule formed from monomer units.
Plastics are a large and varied group of synthetic materials which are produced throu
Chapter 11, Problem 1
Define a ceramic material.
Chapter 11, Solution 1
Ceramic materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials that consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements
bonded together primarily by ionic and/or covalent bonds.
Chapter 11, Problem
Chapter 15, Problem 1
Write the equation relating the energy of radiation to its wavelength and frequency, and give the SI units
for each quantity.
Chapter 15, Solution 1
The equation that relates the energy of radiation to the wavelength and frequency of
Chapter 3, Problem 1
Define the following terms: (a) crystalline solid, (b) long-range order, (c) short-range order, and (d) amorphous.
Chapter 3, Solution 1
(a) a solid that has organized, repeating, 3D positioning of atoms or ions in its structure; (b)
Chapter 13, Problem 1
Define corrosion as it pertains to materials.
Chapter 13, Solution 1
Corrosion is the deterioration of a material resulting from chemical attack by its environment.
Chapter 13, Problem 2
What are some of the factors that affect the c
Chapter 12, Problem 1
Define a composite material with respect to a materials system.
Chapter 12, Solution 1
A composite material is a materials system composed of a mixture or combination of two or more microor macroconstituents that differ in form and c
Solutions to Chapter 17
Biological Materials and Biomaterials.
Explain the difference between a biomaterial and biological materials
Biological materials are materials produced by biological systems. These are the materials
Knowledge and Comprehension Problems:
1.1 What are materials? List eight commonly encountered engineering materials.
Answer1.1: Materials are substances of which something is composed or made. Steels,
aluminum alloys, concrete, wood, glass, plas
Chapter 4, Problem 1
Describe and illustrate the solidification process of a pure metal in terms of the nucleation and growth of
Chapter 4, Solution 1
In general, the solidification of a pure metal involves: the formation of stable nuclei in the
Chapter 8, Problem 1
Define (a) a phase in a material and (b) a phase diagram.
Chapter 8, Solution 1
(a) A phase in a material is a microscopic region that differs in structure and/or composition from
(b) A phase diagram is a graphical rep
Chapter 5, Problem 1
What is a thermally activated process? What is the activation energy for such a process?
Chapter 5, Solution 1
A thermally active process is one which requires a definite amount of thermal energy to overcome an
activation energy barri
Work and Heat
Work is the force times the distance moved in the direction of the force. In this problem,
the force is 200 N and the distance moved in the direction of the force is zero.
Use Table C.3: W pm( v2 v1 ) 800 10 (0.
Chapter 6, Problem 1
(a) How are metal alloys made by the casting process? (b) Distinguish between wrought alloy products
and cast alloy products.
Chapter 6, Solution 1
Alloying elements are added to the molten (basic) metal and allowed to melt. The molte
Power and Refrigeration Gas Cycles
p V 100 (1000 106 )
T2 T1 2
T2 T1 2
706 K or 433
Chapter 7, Problem 1
What are the characteristics of the surface of a ductile fracture of a metal?
Chapter 7, Solution 1
A ductile fracture surface has a dull, fibrous appearance and often resembles a cup-and-cone
Chapter 7, Problem 2
Concepts, Definitions, and Basic Principles
p h gh. 101 000 600 9.8 h. h 17.18 m
p h gh. 200 000 (13.6 1000) 9.8 h.
h 1.50 m or 1500 mm
Properties of Pure Substances
The temperature is lass than 212.4oCs
V mv f 10 0.001177 0.01177 m or 11.77 L
v2 v1 12.03 m 3 /kg. Locate the state where T2 250C
Chapter 14, Problem 1
Describe the classic model for electrical conduction in metals.
Chapter 14, Solution 1
In the classic model for electrical conduction in metals, the outer valence electrons are assumed to move
freely between atoms in the lattice whic
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
max 1 L 1
1 L 1
TH TL 293 253
COP L 2.
From Eq. 5.11, COP L
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Because the container is insulated we assume the heat transfer is zero. For a rigid container:
Q Welectric mcv T
( 400 0 60) 10 10.085(T2 20). T2 29C
Table B.2 was used to find cv .
Power and Refrigeration Vapor Cycles
Refer to Fig. 6.1 and use Tables C.3 and C.2:
For the boiler qB h3 h2 3658.4 251.4 3407 kJ/kg .
Refer to Fig. 6.1and use Table C.3: wT h4 h3 3658.4 2609.7 1048 kJ/kg .