INVENTORY MANAGEMENT, JUST-IN-TIME,
AND SIMPLIFIED COSTING METHODS
20-1 Cost of goods sold (in retail organizations) or direct materials costs (in organizations with
a manufacturing function) as a percentage of sales frequently exceeds net inco
17-1 Industries using process costing in their manufacturing area include chemical processing,
oil refining, pharmaceuticals, plastics, brick and tile manufacturing, semiconductor chips,
beverages, and breakfast cereals.
ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING AND ACTIVITY-BASED MANAGEMENT
Broad averaging (or peanut-butter costing) describes a costing approach that uses broad
averages for assigning (or spreading, as in spreading peanut butter) the cost of resources
Cost poola grouping of individual indirect cost items.
Cost tracingthe assigning of direct costs to the chosen cost object.
Cost allocationthe assigning of indirect costs to the chosen cost object.
Cost-allocation basea factor th