62 THE YH.KmG AND ITS AUTHORS.
and Shun had become emperor. I venture to ask how it was
that Koo-sow was not one of his ministers.' ^ Mencius
answered, ' That ode is not to be understood in that way ;
it speaks of being laboriouslyengaged in the sovereign
Tso tchuen in 661 B.C. explainsas meaning 'carriaagneds
horses follow one another."^ At presentshengma means to
ride a horse,a'nd these two words have been translated adcicngolr-y
in some Europeantranslationsas,*if their authors were
unaware of the pre-ci
whei*e we cannot help recognisinga clear allusion to the
mythological circumstance of the delugelegendas adapted^
and preservedin China, where the story says that the four
\ pillars of the earth sundered,and the earth became defective
on one side. A chief
^ Tso chuen
Hi Kung, xv, 13.
2 Cf.Pih Yuan's gloss,on the Shan hai King^ Kiv. 17,f. 3 v.
seem to have alwaysunderstood the originalpurpose of the
texts he was using,as shown by the fact that his separation
into chaptersdoes not coincid
Yk; each having eight K?vas and eightcombinations of
them. Therefore the term Yh was chieflyattached to the
sixty-four Ewas and the texts attached to them. But the
texts of the Lien skan and Kwei-tsangwere difi'erentunder
some respectsfrom those of the Ch
with the most disappointintgranslation by the venerable Dr.
J. Legge,in the Sacred Books of the East, has awakened a
greaterand wider interest than could be expectedin the
matter. Several publicationshave been made, which we
THE OLDEST BOOK OF THE CHINESE
AND ITS AUTHORS.
A. ^TEREIEN DE LACOUPERIE.
Doct. phil.and litt. (Lovan); Laureate of the Acad. Inscr. andB.-L. ; Professor
of Indo-Chinese Philology(lateof Univ. Coll.,Lond.) etc. ; author of
Origin of the Ea
further than before,and about 675
B.C. they had reached the Southern shores of Shantung,
where theyfounded,on the gulfof Kiao-tchou, Lang-ga and
Tsi-moh. It was in the latter placethat the first coin of
China^ was issued by them about 670. These foreigner
symbolspeh and nan having been inverted in meaning,Si
and Tung ought also to have been inverted ; the popular
routine ought not to have been followed,and the inversion
of meaning which consistencyrequiredagreed with the
natural positionof the stars. But s
and cuneiform,from which the earlyChinese symbolshave
been derived,were those in use between the ages of Gudea
132. The approximatedate when the future civilisersof
China ^ began their migrationeastwards is known onlyfrom
6, 8." Those of the Akkado-Sumerian from iii.1, 3, 5, 8, have passedto i. 1,
3, 5, 8, and iii.2, 4, 5, 8. The standard indices of the Turano-Scythianstock
are iii.1, 3, 5, 8.
* Cf.my work on the Originof the earlyChinese civilisationfrom Babylonia,
ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. XXI
4." La lumi^re du feu apparalt subitement ; elle brtiled,onne la mort ;
on ne peut la supporter (App.)
5." Quand le prince se met en expedition,on verse des larmes et
pousse des gemissements. Et cela doit etre car il sort pour
inventions are attributed to the contemplationof several
hexagrams (thirteen in number), which in nine cases at least^
cannot be confused with the trigrams,and as these inventions
are, several of them, connected with Shen-nung,etc.,we see
that, in the opi
given in the Tso chuen of the Yh, previousltyo this mtaratinosfn,ordo
not show it in that condition,nor otherwise than
alreadya book of good fortune.
In the Tsun-nan yat po, a Chinese journalpublishedat
Shang-hai,of which the chief editor is Wang T'ao,the
XX. 312-315 ; Chips of Babylonian and Chinese palaeography,1888. " And the
approhativepaper of Prof. A. H. Sayce,The Old Babylonian characters and their
Chinese derivates,Nature, 7 June, 1888, and B. and 6. R., August, 1888.
2 The old Babylonian character
given by the translation of the Yh-King by Canon MacClatchie,who has followed a method of his own, and has
been able to producea version consistent from beginningto
end, but evidentlywrong from its very departure.We
have again an example of the consequenc
moratur; illiushominis capillorsadit;nasum proscindit. . ."
Dr. Legge translates: "In the third line,divided,we see one
whose carriageis dragged back, while the oxen in it are
pushed back, and he is himself subjectedto the shavingof
his head and the cutti
* Probablyso called from Sien-Tanff,the capitalof the Ts'in,the archives of
which were saved by Siao Ho, who died b.c. 193, whose full name is givenin the
note. See on him, Mayer'sChinese Reader's Manual, n. 578, 601,and Chinese
from the wings,which are obviouslywritten accordingto
the principleslaid down by She Clidu about 820 B.C. We
shall not enter into the details,theywould be most interesting,
about these categories, as they would requiremore space
than we can afford. We can
3 In fact the period1766-1122 includes two dynastiesth,e Shang from 1766 to
1401, and the Yn afterwards;but this last name is also givento the whole
* Vid.Tai 'Ping Yti Ian,K. 608, f. 5. A ^ ^ usual is not to be taken
literal8l0y,000, but as
thoughnot acceptedeverywhere.^The decline of the MiddleKingdom let the matter drift again.
25. When Ts^in She Hwang Ti brought all the states
under his sway, one of his firstcares was to have an uniform
writingin the empire. He had, about 227 B.C., the 8i
that these roughsigns
are found onlyon made-up antiquitieosr ,misunderstood imitationsa,nd also in
rude inscriptiownristten by men unacquaintewdith the science of writingw,hich
was the privilegoenlyof a small number of the learned. "We have in the Tso-clm
more especially used in the state of Chou than elsewhere,
but was not in common use in the other states so early
as 672, though the book existed at the time. In this
year the great Historiographer of Chou uses himself the Yh
of Chou, of which he had broug
classics; but it seems extremelyprobablethat the work was
accomplishedby the same commission.
127. In the followingcentury a new set of stone classics
was erected at Chang-ngan (Si-nganfu). Five years (833837) were spent to engrave the twelve works theyin
The process was then to write with a bamboo calamus dipped
^ in lacqueron slipsof bamboo, and the Ku-icen text was also
copiedin that way.
119. In 227 B.C. appearedthe Siao chuen or lesser curved
character,which was simplyan officialadoption,and partial
and have translated accordingly.Unhappilyfor the
work done, the genuineobjectof the chapteris ^ instead of
m, so that all the interpretatibounilt upon the latter falls
to the ground.
57. We leave entirelayside the European speculationosf
erected in the Temple of Confucius.^ These tablets are
divided into four classes,viz. : 4 Associates,12 Men of
Genius, 79 Former Worthies, QQ Former Scholars. Among
N the 12 Men of Genius, the last is Chu Hi (1130-1200),the
V celebrated commentator, autho
6 For more details Vid. Wylie,Notes on Chinese Literature,p. 175.
' ^'"115m ^ i5i#.
42 THE YH-KING AND ITS AUTHOKS.
51. Down to the time of the Wei dynasty | (220-265
A.D.)the doctrines of Bhe-CWou and M'dng-Hi had schools
and were discussed. But at the t
prominenceto characters which could be taken as foretelling
words ; and of such words he has interpolatenodt a few. He
has ingeniouslytried to giveto the whole of every chapteran
appearance of relation to the specialsymbolic meanings
attributed to each of
we shall be able in numerous cases to check the itinotenrpretasupportedby
the modern characters. Substitution of
characters,as ;fjg for |^, and ^ for 55) or -^ for $ are not
unimportant,but such as "]g* respectful ' for f^ ' pelvis'
modifies entirelythe p