Health information technology
See also: Health information technology, Health information management, Health informatics, and
Health information technology (HIT) is "the application of information processing involving both
See also: Health system
Health Expenditure per capita (in PPP-adjusted US$) among several OECD member nations. Data source:
The Commonwealth Fund, in its annual survey, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall", compares the perform
Home and community care
Many types of health care interventions are delivered outside of health facilities. They include many
interventions of public health interest, such as food safety surveillance, distribution of condoms and
Main article: Healthcare in Germany
Germany has the world's oldest national social health insurance system, with origins dating back to
Otto von Bismarck's Sickness Insurance Law of 1883.
Currently 85% of the population is covere
See also: Health professionals
Primary care may be provided in community health centres.
The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals
coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This
Main article: Health care in Canada
Health care is mainly a constitutional, provincial government responsibility in Canada (the main
exceptions being federal government responsibility for services provided to aboriginal peoples covered
This article is about the provision of medical care. For other uses, see Health care (disambiguation).
"Medical care" redirects here. For the health journal, see Medical Care (journal).
New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City is one of the world's
Capitation: An amount paid by an insurer to a health care provider, for which the provider agrees to treat
all members of the insurer.
In-Network Provider: (U.S. term) A health care provider on a list of providers preselected by the insurer.
The insurer w
Health care research
Main articles: Medical research and Nursing research
See also: List of health care journals, List of medical journals, and List of nursing journals
For a topical guide to this subject, see Healthcare science.
The quantity and qu
Secondary care includes acute care: necessary treatment for a short period of time for a brief but serious
illness, injury or other health condition, such as in a hospital emergency department. It also includes
skilled attendance duri
See also: Mental health United States 2, and Mentally ill prisoners in the United States
A lack of mental health coverage for Americans bears significant ramifications to the U.S. economy and
social system. A report by the U.S. Surgeon
Shared costs of the uninsured
Main article: Health insurance coverage in the United States
The costs of treating the uninsured must often be absorbed by providers as charity care, passed on to
the insured via cost shifting and higher health insuranc
U.S. Healthcare Costs as a Percentage of GDP 20002011
U.S. Healthcare Costs per Capita 20002011
The U.S. spends more as a percentage of GDP than similar countries, and this can be explained either
through higher prices for services the
Compared to other countries
Life expectancy compared to healthcare spending from 1970 to 2008, in the US and the next 19 most
wealthy countries by total GDP.
A 2014 study by the private American foundation The Commonwealth Fund found that althou
Involved organizations and institutions
Healthcare is subject to extensive regulation at both the federal and the state level, much of which
"arose haphazardly". Under this system, the federal government cedes primary responsibility to the
"Certificates of need" for hospitals
In 1978, the federal government required that all states implement Certificate of Need (CON) programs
for cardiac care, meaning that hospitals had to apply and receive certificates prior to implementing the
Overall system effectiveness
Measures of effectiveness
The US health care delivery system unevenly provides medical care of varying quality to its population.
 In a highly effective health care system, individuals would receive reliable ca
Main article: Health care spending in the United States
U.S. healthcare costs exceed those of other countries, relative to the size of the economy or GDP.
Aggregate U.S. hospital costs were $387.3 billion in 2011a 63% increase since 1997 (i
System efficiency and equity
Variations in the efficiency of health care delivery can cause variations in outcomes. The Dartmouth Atlas
Project, for instance, reported that, for over 20 years, marked variations in how medical resources are
Healthcare provider employment in the United States
A large demographic shift in the United States is putting pressure on the medical system, and the
industries that support it. Roughly 10,000 baby boomers retire every day in the United States which
At the University of Washington, Seattle Informatics Undergraduate Program, Informatics is an
undergraduate program offered by the Information School. Bachelor of Science in Informatics is
described as "[a] program that focuses on computer systems from a
See also: History of computer science and History of computing
This new term was adopted across Western Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly
translated by the English computer science, or computing science. Mikhailov a
Main article: Regulation of gene expression
The genome of a given organism contains thousands of genes, but not all these genes need to be active
at any given moment. A gene is expressed when it is being transcribed into mRNA and the
Multiple gene interactions
Human height is a trait with complex genetic causes. Francis Galton's data from 1889 shows the
relationship between offspring height as a function of mean parent height.
Organisms have thousands of genes, and in sexually r
Main article: Genetic code
The genetic code: Using a triplet code, DNA, through a messenger RNA intermediary, specifies a protein.
Genes generally express their functional effect through the production of proteins,
Academic schools and departments
Academic research in the informatics area can be found in a number of disciplines such as computer
science, information technology, Information and Computer Science, information system, business
Nature and nurture
Main article: Nature and nurture
Siamese cats have a temperature-sensitive pigment-production mutation.
Although genes contain all the information an organism uses to function, the environment plays an
important role in determinin
An automated online assistant providing customer service on a web page one of many very primitive
applications of artificial intelligence.
Main article: Applications of artificial intelligence
AI is relevant to any intellectual task.[19
Informatics is the science of information and computer information systems. As an academic field it
involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field
considers the interaction between humans and informa
Discrete inheritance and Mendel's laws
Main article: Mendelian inheritance
A Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b)
At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs b