At the University of Washington, Seattle Informatics Undergraduate Program, Informatics is an
undergraduate program offered by the Information School. Bachelor of Science in Informatics is
described as "[a] program that focuses on computer systems from a
See also: History of computer science and History of computing
This new term was adopted across Western Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly
translated by the English computer science, or computing science. Mikhailov a
Main article: Regulation of gene expression
The genome of a given organism contains thousands of genes, but not all these genes need to be active
at any given moment. A gene is expressed when it is being transcribed into mRNA and the
Multiple gene interactions
Human height is a trait with complex genetic causes. Francis Galton's data from 1889 shows the
relationship between offspring height as a function of mean parent height.
Organisms have thousands of genes, and in sexually r
Main article: Genetic code
The genetic code: Using a triplet code, DNA, through a messenger RNA intermediary, specifies a protein.
Genes generally express their functional effect through the production of proteins,
Academic schools and departments
Academic research in the informatics area can be found in a number of disciplines such as computer
science, information technology, Information and Computer Science, information system, business
Nature and nurture
Main article: Nature and nurture
Siamese cats have a temperature-sensitive pigment-production mutation.
Although genes contain all the information an organism uses to function, the environment plays an
important role in determinin
An automated online assistant providing customer service on a web page one of many very primitive
applications of artificial intelligence.
Main article: Applications of artificial intelligence
AI is relevant to any intellectual task.[19
Informatics is the science of information and computer information systems. As an academic field it
involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field
considers the interaction between humans and informa
Discrete inheritance and Mendel's laws
Main article: Mendelian inheritance
A Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b)
At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs b
Main article: Computational creativity
A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological
perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can
DNA and chromosomes
Main articles: DNA and Chromosome
The molecular structure of DNA. Bases pair through the arrangement of hydrogen bonding between the
The molecular basis for genes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is composed of a chai
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"AI" redirects here. For other uses, see Ai and Artificial intelligence (disambiguation).
Main article: Mutation
Gene duplication allows diversification by providing redundancy: one gene can mutate and lose its
original function without harming the organism.
During the process of DNA replication, errors occ
Intelligent behaviour and machine ethics
As a minimum, an AI system must be able to reproduce aspects of human intelligence. This raises the
issue of how ethically the machine should behave towards both humans and other AI agents. This issue
Deep feedforward neural networks
Main article: Deep learning
Deep learning in artificial neural networks with many layers has transformed many important subfields
of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural lan
When computers with large memories became available around 1970, researchers from all three
traditions began to build knowledge into AI applications. This "knowledge revolution" led to the
development and deployment of expert systems
Main article: History of genetics
DNA, the molecular basis for biological inheritance. Each strand of DNA is a chain of nucleotides,
matching each other in the center to form what look like rungs on a twisted ladder.
The observation that liv
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally
considered a field of biology, but it intersects frequently with many of the life sciences and is strongly
linked with the study of information syst
Main articles: History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence
While the concept of artificial beings (some of which are capable of thought) appeared as storytelling
devices in antiquity, the idea of actually t
Main articles: Logic programming and Automated reasoning
Logic is used for knowledge representation and problem solving, but it can be applied to other
problems as well. For example, the satplan algorithm uses logic for planning and
Although genes were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes are composed of both protein and
DNA, and scientists did not know which of the two is responsible for inheritance. In 1928, Frederick
Griffith discovered the phenomeno
Silver et al. (1995) provided two views on IS that includes software, hardware, data, people, and
procedures. Zheng provided another system view of information system which also adds processes
and essential system elements like environm
Machine consciousness, sentience and mind
Main article: Artificial consciousness
If an AI system replicates all key aspects of human intelligence, will that system also be sentient will it
have a mind which has conscious experiences? This question i
Recombination and genetic linkage
Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage
Thomas Hunt Morgan's 1916 illustration of a double crossover between chromosomes.
The diploid nature of chromosomes allows for genes on different chromosomes
A hierarchical control system is a form of control system in which a set of devices and governing software
is arranged in a hierarchy.
Main article: Automated planning and scheduling
Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve
The common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is a popular model organism in genetics research.
Although geneticists originally studied inheritance in a wide range of organisms, researchers began to
specialize in studying the geneti
The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems.
These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an intelligent system to display.
The traits describ
Colonies of E. coli produced by cellular cloning. A similar methodology is often used in molecular cloning.
DNA can be manipulated in the laboratory. Restriction enzymes are commonly used enzymes that cut
DNA at specific sequences,
While the average height of the two corn stalks may be genetically determined to be equal, the one in
the arid climate only grows to half the height of the one in the temperate climate due to lack of water
and nutrients in its environment.