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This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see
European Union. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation).
(3,930,000 sq mi)[n] (6th)
In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has
steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in
2002 after nearly 30 years. This has coincided with many countries
abandoning communist-style command econ
Bokenkotter, p. 27, p. 154, pp. 493494
A summary and restatement of the debate is available in Roderick Hindery. "The Evolution of Freedom as
Catholicity in Catholic Ethics." Anxiety, Guilt, and Freedom. Eds. Benjamin Hubbard and Brad Starr
From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia (3721' N), to
the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa (3451'15" S), is
a distance of approximately 8,000 km (5,000 mi); from Cape Verde,
1733'22" W, the westernmost point, to Ras H
he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of
that office to settle in Rome. After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime,
long before Peter is said to have re
languages. English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French
Guiana and the second language in Amap, Brazil.
Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia;
"Demographia World Urban Areas p.22" (PDF).
Demographia. April 2012.
"Latin & South America Tourism Statistics & Visitor
Numbers". Bigtravelweb.com. 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
Juan Luis Eugenio-Martn, Noelia Martn Morales, Ri
Europe are beech and oak. In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce
pinebirch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern
Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached.
In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been
EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate. Turkic
languages include Azerbaijani and Turkish, in addition to the languages
of minority nations in Russia.
Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages
are recognised poli
forces invaded France in the D-Day landings, opening a new front
against Germany. Berlin finally fell in 1945, ending World War II in
Europe. The war was the largest and most destructive in human history,
with 60 million dead across the world. More t
for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service
costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the
The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th
century. Some democ
European integration is the process of political, legal, economic (and in
some cases social and cultural) integration of states wholly or partially in
Europe. While the Council of Europewhich includes almost all
European stateshas promoted pan-Europe coop
Geo. Babington Michell, "The Berbers", Journal of Royal
African Society, Vol. 2, No. 6 (January 1903), pp. 161-194.
Edward Lipinski, Itineraria Phoenicia, Peeters Publishers,
2004, p. 200. ISBN 90-429-1344-4
Main articles: Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese
colonization of the Americas
Portuguese arrival in Brazil in the Colonial era.
The IncaSpanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left
thousands of natives dead
Europe is the world's
ences are mildly greater than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western
civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the
migration period, marked the end of ancient
, Encyclopdia Britannica
"BBC News - AFRICA - Focus on the slave trade". bbc.co.uk.
Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa,
Paul E. Lovejoy, p. 25
Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1
golf, field hockey and boxing.
South America will hold its first Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil in 2016 and the Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires,
Argentina in 2018.
Castelo Stadium in Fortaleza, Brazil.
South America shares with Europe the sup
from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October
J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2016). Western Civilization: A Brief
History, Volume I: To 1715 (Cengage Learning ed.). p. 156.
Neill, Thomas Patrick (1957). Readi
Falconer, William; Falconer, Thomas. Dissertation on St.
Paul's Voyage, BiblioLife (BiblioBazaar), 1872. (1817.), p 50,
ISBN 1-113-68809-2 These islands Pliny, as well as Strabo and
Ptolemy, included in the African sea
See, e.g., Merje Kuus, 'Europe
have a considerable population of European origins). Australia and New
Zealand have large European derived populations. Africa has no
countries with European-derived majorities (or with the exception of
Cape Verde and probably So Tom and Prncipe, dependin
"Food, Famine And Fertilisers". Seshadri Kannan (2009).
APH Publishing. p.51. ISBN 81-313-0356-X
W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). "Islam And The Abolition Of
Slavery". Oxford University Press. p.13. ISBN 0-19-522151-6
"Lands to the north of the Black S
in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th
century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.
During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain
between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until
financial crisis has pushed back 100 million people into food insecurity.
In recent years, the People's Republic of China has built increasingly
stronger ties with African nations and is Africa's largest trading partner.
In 2007, Chinese companies in
European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans.
In 332 BC, Alexander the Great was welcomed as a liberator
in Persian-occupied Egypt. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which
would become the prosperous capital of the P
held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. 75:17). He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he
been able, he would have done so. Thus in 250 the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those
best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in
Robin Derricourt, "Getting 'Out of Africa': Sea Crossings,
Land Crossings and Culture in the Hominin Migrations", 7 July
Candice Goucher et al., World History: Journeys from Past to
South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron
ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have
brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of
rapid economic growth by industriali
. KTAV Publishing House. p. 157. ISBN 0-88125-811-3. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
"CCC, 1272". Vatican.va. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
"CCC, 1256". Vatican.va. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
"CCC, 1285". Vatican.va. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
"Canon 883". 1983 Code of Ca
exprimitur." (A rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary heritage, differentiated
by peoples' culture and historical circumstances, that finds expression in each sui iuris Church's
own way of living the faith).
"Catechism of the Cat
Italians in the Catholic Church in America". In Connell, William J.; Gardaph, Fred. Anti-Italianism: Essays
on a Prejudice. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 334. ISBN 978-0-230-11532-3.
Chadwick, Owen, pp. 264265
Scheina, p. 33.