The Middle East
and North Africa
The region that stretches from across North
Africa Eastwards to Iran and into Afghanistan is
often referred to as the Middle East.
The northern boundaries include the
Mediterranean and Black
MUHL 220 Test #1 Study Guide: Elements of Music
Covering all lecture notes, Powerpoints and chapters 1 thru 5 of Music of the
Peoples of the World.
There will be 50 questions in various formats; multiple choice, listening/identifying,
true/false, and matc
Japan is a country made up of four main islands.
Its name, often translated as "The Land of the Rising
Sun", comes from China and refers to Japan's
eastward position relative to the Asian continent.
Japanese society is known to be ethnically
Prof. Shail Godambe
Material Requirements Planning
(MRP and ERP)
Heizer and Render Chapter 14
When you complete this chapter, you should be
able to :
Identify or Define:
Traditional music in
Two geographical divisions:
Island Southeast Asia
East Timor (gained
ordering of music
Beat: A point
in time without duration; beats
are separated by time-span durations.
Beats are the steady pulse of music.
Beats form the basis for the sense of musical
Style, Performance, Genre, and
Things to consider while
listening to music or
is the particular manner or technique by
which something is done, created, or
In music, style refers to the characteristic use
Texture and Form
The Density and
Structure of music
Texture: is the function, number,
and general relationship of musical lines to
A term normally associated with the interweaving
of fabrics used to describe how melodies inte
General Information about the
Music of India
The Indian peninsula
consists of the southern
most ranges of the
and Karakorum in the
north, to the island of
Sri Lanka in the south.
This region contains a
Choral music is among the most common music on
planet earth and is sung around the world for many
The most common divisions used to classify choral
Sacred Music for religious purposes
Types of texture
Monophony A single voice or line without accompaniment
Polyphony many voiced texture with different melodic lines
sounding at once.
*based on counterpoint one line set against another
Homophony occurs when one melodic v
Rhythm and Harmony
Rhythm The movement of
Each individual note in music has a length, or duration.
The beat is the basic unit of rhythm and divides musical time into an
even pulse.(this is why you can tap your foot to music, because you
The four major groups of instruments are:
Strings: Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass, Harp, Guitar
Woodwinds: Flute, Piccolo, Oboe, English Horn, Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Bassoon,
Style and Function
of Music in Society
Genre Category of music and its implied purpose/function within a
Ex. Electronic Dance Music meant for dancing
The main genres we can distinguish happening in almost all cultures are:
Sacred Music f
Voices and Instruments
Timbre the properties of sound besides pitch, duration, and volume.
Timbre can be a very difficult thing to pin down to a precise definition
but it is usually used in describing or referring to the way an
instrument or set
Renaissance Vocal music
a capella-voices without accompaniment
Imitation-melodic ideas exchanged
between different lines or voices of music.
Much of the vocal music in the Renaissance
uses imitation in some way.
Renaissance Instrumental Musi
Music from Ancient Greece
to the Renaissance
Form of stage drama
Performed at Greek amphitheaters
Accompanied by music
The music was notated
There were several musical instruments
They were tuned according to Pythagorean tuning
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770
Born in Bonn, Germany
The most influential composer
in the history of music.
His life is divided into three time periods:
-Early - (1770-1802) Formative years
-Middle (1802-1814) Heroic style
-Late (1815-1827) introspe
The Baroque Era
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
The term Baroque was applied to the time period
centuries later and it means the misshapen
This is in reference to the elaborate
ornamentation, and intensely dramatic art which
seemed so strange to arti
Johann Sebastian Bach
Born in Germany
Known as a virtuoso organist and composer
Known to be a great improviser
-could improvise a fugue
Music is known for its dense counterpoint
and rich harmonies
Bach in Weimar 1703-1717
The Classical Era
Enlightenment a philosophical and
intellectual movement in the late
1700s in Europe that stressed the
centrality of reason in human experience.
All our knowledge begins with sense,
proceeds thence to under
Most of the music before the later 1700s enjoyed only a short arc of
Most composers fell into obscurity within one or two generations.
The composer who broke this trend was George Friderich Handel.