12. Solubility and Le Chateliers Effect
Cu+(aq) + I-(aq)
a) Shifting Equilibrium to Left
i) If shift the equilibrium to the left, we are decreasing the solubility of the CuI(s)
ii) We can shift the equilibrium to left by increasing [
2. Strength of Acids and Bases
a) What is a Strong Acid?
i) 100% dissociated in water
ii) No reverse reaction. Not in equilibrium.
HCl + H2O H3O+ +
(no undissociated HCl)
iv) There are six strong acids. Refer to Relative S
5. Ksp and Precipitate Formation
The value of Ksp is the point between the ions precipitating or the ions
At exactly Ksp, the ions will just start to precipitate. You have just arrived at
the saturation point.
a) Trial Ksp aka. The Ion
3. Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
i) Release H+(aq) in water
ii) Any ionic species starting with H.
Eg.: HCl, HNO3
iii) Are electrolytes
iv) Taste sour
v) Turn Litmus paper red
vi) Produce H2(g) when react with most metals.
vii) Reacts with
1. Bronsted Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
takes equilibrium reactions into account!
i) Proton donors gives H+ to another substance
ii) HCl + H2O
H3O+ + Cl-
HCl donated one proton to H2O, so it is an acid.
HCl is a Monoprotic Acid (donates on
6. Ksp and Solubility
In the last sections, we were able to qualitatively identify which salts were soluble
or not soluble.
What about salts that are slightly soluble?
Now, we want to quantify (attach a numerical value) the degree of solubility of
7. Molar Solubility
Moles per litre !
Think of molar solubility as molarity of a saturated solution!
Example: 0.49 g of AgBrO3 is required to saturate 250 mL of water. What is the
molar solubility of AgBrO3?
0.49 g x 1mol = 0.0021 mol
13. Solubility of Ionic Compounds (Salts)
a) Solubility Range of Salts in Water
greater than 0.1 moles
salt per litre of water
less than 0.1 moles salt
per litre of water
extremely low s
14. Using Solubility Table and Precipitation to Identify Ions
a) Where would a chemist want to do this?
We might have a solution containing unknown ions and wish to determine what
ions are present.
b) What is the process used to identify ions?
i) Lets pre
11. Proton Competition and Keq
a) Question to Consider for any Acid and Base Equilibrium:
Which side of the equilibrium is favored?
(i.e.: which side, product or reactant, has a greater [ ])
(i.e.: if there are two acids in an equilibrium, which acid dona
4. Equilibrium Dissociation for Water, Acids and Bases
a) What is Dissociation of Water?
i) Liquid water is in equilibrium with its aqueous ions:
2H2O(l) + 59kJ
H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)
ii) Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-14
iii) Water is neutral so: [H3O+] = [OH