1) Based on the methods discussed in this review and in class, propose an experiment to
determine whether the DNA for a specific gene associates with the nuclear envelope.
The first step should be determining whether our gene inte
19.7: Regulatory Evolution
A major constraint on gene evolution is the potential pleiotropic effects (one gene affects
more than one phenotype) of mutations in coding regions
Effects circumvented by mutations in regulatory sequences, play a major role i
23.2: How Do New Species Arise?
Not all evolutionary changes lead to new species, a single lineage may change over time
without giving rise to a new species
The amount of genetic difference needed to prevent gene exchange is variable in different
23.3: What Happens when Newly Formed Species Come Together?
Once a barrier to gene flow is established, the separated populations may diverge
genetically through evolutionary mechanisms (mutation, drift, migration, non-random
25.2: How Are Phylogenetic Tress Constructed?
Outgroup any species or group of species outside the group of interest
o Used to determine which traits of the ingroup are derived (evolved in the ingroup)
and which are ancestral (evolved before origin on th
Biology Exam #2 Notes
16.2 Changes in Chromosome Structure
Rearrangements changes in chromosome structure, caused by DNA breakage, can be
artificially induced using ionizing radiation (x-rays, gamma rays)
o Deletion chromosome segment is lost
Biology Exam 3 Notes:
LIF Chapter 23: Species and their Formation
23.1: What are Species?
Species kinds, result of processes that unfold over time
Binomial system system of Latinate nomenclature developed by Carolus Linaeus,
classified based on appearan
IGA Chapter 19: Evolutionary Genetics
Natural selection preservation of favorable variation and the rejection of injurious
Darwins Theory of Evolution
o Principle of variation among individuals in a population, there is variation in
LIF Chapter 21: The History of Life on Earth
21.1: How Do Scientists Date Ancient Events?
Many evolutionary changes happen rapidly enough that they can be studied directly and
manipulated experimentally (ex. Evolution of resistance to pesticides)
LIF Chapter 25: Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies
25.1: What is Phylogeny?
Phylogeny description of the evolutionary history of relationships among organisms
Phylogenetic tree diagram that portrays a reconstruction of that history, commonly
used to d
Lecture 7: Integrating Cells into
Question and Answer session will be Monday 810 PM. Room TBD.
No assignment due and no discussion sections
Claudins make the tight-junction strands that
form the inter-cellular seals
Lecture 5: Integrating Cells into
Biochemical binding experiments
Biochemical binding experiments
Do these proteins form complexes?
Size exclusion chromatography
Cell Bio 315
1. (1 pt) What three distinct ways did the authors use to eliminate or almost entirely eliminate
significant protein levels of the MAGUKs ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3?
First they started with mouse Eph4 cells in which ZO-3 was n
Cell Bio 318
1) Why do you think the authors tested both WT LKB1 and GFP tagged LKB1 in their
assays? What did they use as a negative control?
In previous studies the LKB1 protein exhibited weak catalytic activity in b
Zarzenczy et al.
1) (2 pts) Briefly outline two arguments why tissue donors for iPS research should have
extended say (that is have a chance to review and approve of) in how their donation
and cells derived from their donated cells should be used in the f
Zhao Y and Guo W. 2009 Sec-ure nanotubes with RalA and exocyst, Nat Cell Biol.
1) (1 pt) Why does it make mechanistic sense for the exocyst complex to be able to
regulate the arp2/3 complex?
The exocyst complex works as part of the exocyto
Biology 315 Cell Biology
Westphal CH, Dipp MA, Guarente L., 2007 A therapeutic role for sirtuins in diseases of
aging? Trends Biochem Sci. 32:555-60
1) (1 pt) Very briefly describe two effects that have been observed in animal
Bio 315 - Cell Biology: Introduction
Announcements, lecture notes, assignments, supplementary material, old
exams will be posted on NU Blackboard web site
Note: I always put in more slides than I expect to get to in case
things happen to go unexpectedly f
Lecture 2: Cell biological Techniques II
Make sure that you have access to Blackboard.
If you do not have access to blackboard, you
are probably not registered for the course.
A new version of the syllabus with corrections
to discussion sections and final
Lecture 3: Techniques III, and
Integrating Cells into Tissues
Notes for the beginning of class:
Discussion sections : moving/missing sections
Working in groups -> encouraged, but written work needs to be
Previous exams and study guides will be p
Lecture 4: Integrating Cells into
Section 19.6 on plant cells will not be covered in class
and you will not be tested on it.
Please read and understand section 3.6 that goes
through some basic techniques of cell
biology/biochemistry. If you hav
25.3: How Do Biologists Use Phylogenetic Trees?
Phylogenies help us reconstruct the past
o Most plants reproduce by mating with another individual (outcrossing) and have
mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization (self-incompatible)
o Individuals of other