CH 8: GENDER
Feminism a consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle in life.
The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect
Sex the biological difference
CH 2: METHODS
Research methods approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions (a set of
standard approaches to describe, explore, and explain various social phenomena in an ethical fashion)
o Quantitative methods methods
Sharon Zukin details how shopping has changed American culture in her novel,
Point of Purchase. I decided to read this book because, like most of my peers, shopping
is a vital part of my everyday life. However, I have never questioned why
Oct 4 Mon Structure
Martin Sanchez-Jankowski, Gang Business (MSL)
o Capable and competent entrepreneurial, legitimate business planning, calculated
risks, is a sub-culture
o While many sociologists say they lack cultural values, this article says t
-Culture of poverty-poor ppl adopt certain practices diff than middle class in order to survive in
diff economic circumstances
-ex. illegal work, multigenerational living arrangements, etc
-Swapping-pooling community resources as informal social insurance
Sociological imagination: the ability to connect the intimate/personal aspects of ones life to
other seemingly mundane and distant historical forces
Social institution: group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing social role
Quantitative methods: get info in numeric form, statistical analysis, attempt to mimic scientific
method using treatment and placebo
Qualitative methods: meanings of actions, describe how processes occur, recording interviews,
spending time w/ ppl, review
-Six huge companies produce most books, newspapers, rtvf
-Culture = human nature
-sum of total social categories/concepts/behaviors/beliefs/practices
-Culture = superior man inferior man
-what other peoples do how traditions rose after influenced by older
Socialization: process where one learns how to function in society
-Family primary unit of socialization until kids go to school and then school becomes key
Self: id of person as perceived by that person
-I= understanding that you are you
-Doctors lots of social power, political power, and prestige
-very personal, private affairs and yet objective
-set the bill
-Medicalization-process by which problems/issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be
framed that way
Endogamy- marriage to someone within ones social group (race, class, caste)
Exogamy-marriage to someone outside ones social group
Polyandry- multiple husbands at once
Polygyny- multiple wives at once
Nuclear family- mother, father, children
-College=peers socializing to become adults in society, most first time away from fam
-Education=process through academic, social, cultural ideas/tools developed
-Vocational ex. carpentry/mechanical; professional schools ex. doctors/lawyers
-Home is mostly principal place of business today
Capitalism: property and goods privately owned/competitive
-use of $
-Enclosure movement (land partitioned off) led to rise of ppl migrating to cities for work since
public land now closed off and ppl evic
-Collective action- action that takes place in groups and diff from social norms of situation
-all the students sit on the floor, all the students talk during lecture
-Crowd collective action- face to face w/ other members of group
-can occur w/o physical
- Looking-Glass Self (Cooley): Seeing how others see you, then reacting to the
responses of those others. Relation of self to society. We constantly read how others
- Generalized Other (Mead): Taking the point of vi
-Sex-biological male or female
-Sexuality-desire, preference, identity, behavior
-Gender-social position and social arrangements around sex categories
-guidebook that humans use to distinguish selves from others
-Nurture trumps naturecan raise genetic mal
Definition: Structured, social inequality or, more specifically, systematic inequalities between
groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and
relationships. (YMAY 228)
Forms of Stratification:
What is it? How is it different from society?
Everything but nature way too broad.
Set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum of(YMAY 73)
That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and
Dramaturgical (Performance) Theory
- All the worlds a stage, were players, etc. etc.
- Social actions are likened to constant performance/rehearsals.
o The audience is the other actors with you on stage.
o Impression management is important. Ex: W
Education Paradox: Although school is supposed to be the institution in society that provides
equal opportunity, it ends up sorting and stratifying students by the backgrounds from which they
- I.e., rich kids attending the best prep school
What ideologies keep capitalism going?
- 68% believe that they are in control of their economic situation.
- 68% say they have achieved or will achieve the American dream.
- 2 in 10 say they expect to be millionaires in the next decade; currently
The Sociological Study of Health
- The social construction of illness.
- The health professions.
- Health care as organizational and political issue.
- Healthcare and access or user experiences.
- Health inequalities.
- Health behaviors.
CH 5: GROUPS AND NETWORKS
Simmel: Most fundamental distinction among most social relations: dyad & triad
Dyad - a group of two
o Most intimate form of social life (mutually dependent on each other)
o Existence of the group cont
Sociology: You can do it everywhere and anywhere.
- A broad social science.
We are not cognizant of how we participate in social life sociology makes familiar situations
Research methods: Going beyond the numbers.
- Social desirability bias
- Selection bias
- Reflexivity (thinking of the researcher as a tool for research. Changes the social
scene just by being there.)
The researcher has a lot of p
Race is a SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION TOO. (Like gender)
We are roughly 99% identical genetically; of the difference that exists roughly 85% is found in
any local, geographic group. That is, two white people might be as different as two people from
India and Engl
Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
Sex is NOT gender. Sex is (supposedly) biological, gender is a sociological construct.
- See: transgender. What their sex is and what they think of themselves as can be
- How do we do gender? Is it fi
Cross-cohort socialization: younger ppl pick up practices from older ppl around them
-Adolescents in disadv. neighborhoods spend more time with older peers than more adv neighb.
Social isolation theory: kids in poorer neighb. learn culture there, which is
Introduction to Sociology
The Sociological Imagination
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Sections and Changing Sections