SOUI'l-l Ream LOT SAMPLE '-
Cu: W . 1|- .
Femmwmnszzmg. . IL
31:11ng . IL
Kzga.|oggveogsmsm , IL .
MgtsJssmssztlaeem IL .
99.0 ml. . woos = 56.4 9190:
2379 soil [kg ha so
Tukey HSD Test
HSD .05 =55.6; HSD .01 =70.15 M1 = mean of Sample 1
M1 is M; p<.01 [ ] M2 = mean of Sample 2
M1 vs M3 P<.01 and so forth.
M2 vs M3 nonsignicant
0 MI (3 Rezlo) VS- M2 (Gemocrg vMarILham HSD = the absolute [unsigned]
Prairie) [5 Simsmllu di
Solution Observed colour of flame
l M LiCl _- Crimson red flame
l M NaN03 -trangeyellow flame
1 M -. ight lilac ame
l M SrClZ ISoarlet red flame
nknown salt . .
solution #2 Crimson red flame, LlCl
, . weep Purple Initial red flame
oncentration observations of green flame?
of Copper, M
Clearlygreen flames observed, consistently
Green flame observed, about half as intense as 1M
Moments of green flame observed, much less intense
than .4 M
Similarly to .16 M, moments
Condensed Lecture Notes (Part 3)
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. It is a transparent gas under normal conditions.
It can form both a cation (H*) and an anion (H-).
It is made industrially
What reacts with what?
In Chem 172 youwill leam how to determine this in a rigorous way using electrochemistry. For now
we'll use a practical tool, the ?,-which says that the ability of an element to be oxidized is
ordered as follo
How to name d-metal complexes
d-Metal complexes are identified by giving the names and numbers of the individual ligands. Because
some names can be quite long, interpreting the names of coordination compounds is rather like eating a
.*) ta-\I'cfw_.f cr\tr4
Condensed Lecture Notes,
Bond energy of NaCl
If NaCl were diatomic molecule of the type Na Cl-, and the ions can be treated
interaction energy would be (Coulomb's law):
point charges, then the
Toolbox 2.1: Lewis Structures
l. Count the number of valence electrons on each atom. Divide by two to obtain the number of electron
2. Guess possible structures
3. Place one electron pair between each pair of atoms
4. Complete the octet (duplet) wit
Molecular Orbital Calculations
In molecular orbital calculations one solves the Schrddinger equation numerically to determine the
molecular orbitals, energies and many other properties.
The technology for doing this was largely pioneered by John Pople, wh
Wavefunctions of the hydrogen atom
v"r," cfw_r,0,0) = R", (r)Yr, (0, O)
n = principal quantum number
t orbital angular momentum quantum number
m = magnetic quantum number
Condensed Lecture Notes Chemistry 171: part 1 (of 4)
George Schatz, September 2010
Topics discussed in the first 94 pages of Atkins and Jones
1. Fundamentals of the atom: electrons, protons, neutrons, nuclei
The problem with carbon is that the ground atomic configuration, 1s22s22p2, only allows for the formation
of two bonds. To form four bonds, it is necessary to "promote" one of the 2s electrons to 2p, so that now
carbon has four unpaired e