Based on the fact that voiceless stops in English are unaspirated and have a short
VOT after [s], I expect that English listeners will judge an unaspiratd word-initial
stop to sound more like a voiced than a voiceless stop.
Because the in English, word-in
Re: Consonants of the World,
this is what you will need to know
for the exam:
Consonants of the World
all of the POAs shown on IPA chart (names and
locations in vocal tract)
all of the manners of articulation (names and
how they are produced)
Acoustics of Voicing
(seen primarily on Waveforms,
but also on Spectrograms)
What is the difference between a periodic sound
wave and noise?
Why is periodicity important in our analysis of
What does the abbreviation
A natural class is a group of sounds that shares
some articulatory or acoustic feature(s).
hA natural class includes all and only sounds with
the relevant feature(s).
he.g. the class of voiced oral stops in English
Predictable occurrence- Complementary distributionsame phony category
One sound can occur another sound cannot
Unpredictable occurrence-overlapping environment-parallel distributions
Phonemes affect out perception
-People perceive some things continuously
The phonemic principle
Two or more sounds are realizations of the
same phoneme if:
they are in complementary distribution
they are phonetically similar
We say that the sounds that can
differentiate minimal pairs are contrastive
Vowels vs. Consonants
Introduction to Consonants
Generate a list of English consonants
The consonants of English
How many different consonants of
English can occur in the frame /Cn/?
Core Questions for Phonology
What do you know about the sound system
of your language?
Phonemes and Allophones
Phonemes vs. Allophones: What are the
sounds that are meaningfully distinctive?
Phonotactics: How can sounds be sequenced?
Sound Patterns in Human Language
Consider the syllable onsets consisting of a phoneme of the vertical axis of this table followed by a phoneme
of the horizontal axis. Mark with an X each cell that describes a possible (i.e. phonotactically
What is a syllable?
How many syllables are in each of the
Syllables and Prosody
A syllable is a unit of sound composed of
a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel)
the consonants that cluster around this central