Enterococci produce aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, that transfer chemical
groups and will impair an antibiotic binding and thus resistance
IgA Protease facilitates Mucosal Penetration.
Nitrglycerin works primarily as a Venodilator, where cardiac worklo
ADH acts in Medullary Segment of collecting duct, where it acts to absorb water
Aldosterone mainly acts in Cortical Segment of Collecting Ducts.
Staph. Scalded Skin Syndrome produce Exfoliating Exotoxin, and there is a
presence of Nikolsky Sign.
Patients with Bilateral Cataracts and no Hepatic Involvement have a deficiency
of Galactokinase and thus Galactose is shifted and converted into Galactitol by
Aldose Reductase and thus it accumulates in the lens of the eye without Hepatic
GTP is synthesized in the Succinyl CoA reaction in TCA cycle, and used as an
energy source for decarboxylation of Oxaloacetate to Phosphoenolpyruvate by
PEP Carboxykinase in Gluconeogenesis.
Lysine and Leucine are strictly Ketogenic Amino Acids and would
MHC Class I Molecule consists of a Heavy Chain and a Beta 2 Microglobulin
Lactase Deficiency will present with Increased Stool Osmotic Gap, Increased
Breath Hydrogen and Decreased Stool pH.
Pathogenesis of Crohns Disease presents with activity of TH1 cell
Maple Syrup Urine Disease defect in -ketoacid dehydrogenase, which requires
5 cofactors (Thiamine Pyrophosphate, FAD, NAD and Coenzyme Q) similar to
Rupture of Myocardium is the most common complication of AMI 3-7 days later.
Ergonovine is an ergot alkaloid that constricts vascular smooth muscle by
stimulating alpha adrenergic and serotonergic receptors and thus it can cause a
N-Acetylcysteine works by cleaving Disulfide Bonds within Mucus
HIV + Patients often undergo reactivation of EBV Virus
Absolute Risk Reduction = Event Rate in Placebo (25/1000 = 2.5%) Event Rate in
Treatment (10/1000=1%) Thus its equal to 1.5% or 0.015.
Number Needed to Treat = 1/ARR NNT= 1/0.015=0.66 or 66%
Odds Ratio is calculated from formula OR=ad/bc
Relative Risk is [a(a+c)]/[b(b+d)]
Incomplete closure of Caudal Region of abdomen, will cause extrophy of the
bladder or cloaca extrophy
Fibrates and Bile Resins will increase cholesterol content of bile and
Nitrates and High Blood Pressure nitrates cause vasodilation and Reflex
Tachycardia kicks in when the body senses the drop in BP, so to avoid
Tachycardia, you must administer Beta Blockers.
Loss of Contractility of a Muscle usually occurs within 60 second