Estrogen Replacement Therapy:
Affects metabolism of thyroid hormones. The requirement for L-Thyroxine increases, although the exact
mechanism not known it could be due to induction of liver enzymes, increased level of TBG. In
pregnancy also thyroid hormon
1x1 cm firm rubbery freely mobile round mass in a 35 yo women w/o axillary nodes palpable. Best initial
step is Mamogram.
Fibrocystic Dis of Breast
A 4x5x6 cm moveable rubbery mass that will go away after poking the needle and secretion of c
Diabetis Melitus - 34
1-Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis in a diabetic pt with Gastroenteritis could be either due to loss of
bicarbonate due to diarrhea, or defective NH4 sunthesis due to nephropathy. So next we need to calculate
urine anion gap. [Uri
Development Dysplasia of Hip
DDH is characterized by subluxatable and dislocatable proximal femur and acetabulum. Early dx and tx is
important because failure will result in sigificant morbidity. On inspection uneven gloteal fold are seen.
Its mc in femla
Dyspnea, confusion and petechia in the upper part of the body, After multiple fractures of long bones. Tx
should include prompt respiratory support. Use of heparin, steriods is controversial.
Biopsy shows foamy macrophages and fa
Types are 1-Neurogenic:A pelvic fracture with an urethral injury is usually accompanied with ED. The
cause is nerve injury and altered blood supply. 2-Venogenic:After penile fracture and disruption of tunica
Dysfuncx Uterine Bleeding- 2
Heavy unremiting endometrial hemorhage throught menarche and perimenopause requires Estrogen
(conjugated) to supress the bleeding to ensure CV stability. Once that is achieved D&C should be
performed. The MCC of DUB in adulesc
Can occur from parapneumonic effusions(In parapneumonic effusions, the visceral pleura overlying a
pneumonia becomes inflamed; often, an outpouring of serous exudative fluid accompanies acute pleurisy.
The fluid contains many neutrophils and may c
Tx is FFP if pt is bleeding only. If pt is not bleeding and has sepsis (high T and low BP) first step is IV
antibiotics plus Activated Protein C.
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm - 2
Manifest with chest pain and dysphagia. Etiology in unknown but its related
Down Synd in Pregnancy
T14Q12 explains how to test for DS in older women. Decreased MSAFP and Estriol and Increased BHCG is the best test. SEE FIRASR AID. Know heart defect, and also that they have Duedenal atresia.
Learn this.* Hay ASD and endocardial cu