Using A* in Planning
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C
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A B
C
A
B
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B C
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B
A
B
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A B C
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EECS 348: Adversarial Search
?
Strategic thinking = intelligence
Two-player games have been a key focus of AI as long as computers have been around
Humans a
EECS 348: Informed Search
Rational Agents
Rational Agent = An agent (program) that
does the "right" thing, given its goals, its
abilities, what it perceives of its
environment and its prior knowledge
Techniques for Implementing Policies
Search
Reasoning w
EECS 348: Artificial Intelligence
Working in small groups, solve the following problems.
1) Consider the following tic-tac-toe position:
O
X
O
X
O
X
It is currently Xs turn to move. Use the MINIMAX approach to determine what
move X should make. Who will w
EECS 348: Adversarial Search
?
Strategic thinking = intelligence
Two-player games have been a key focus of AI as long as computers have been around
Humans and computers have different relative strengths in these games:
humans
good at evaluating the
streng
CS 348: Introduction to
Artificial Intelligence
Professor Sara Owsley Sood
Today
Introductions
Me
This course
Python, briefly
Me
What to call me?
Sara
Professor Sood
PhD @ NU
Pomona College
Buzz
News at Seven
In this course
Apply basic Artificia
. . - . Artificial Intelligence
In-Class Worksheet #1 Solutions
Working in small groups, solve the following problems.
1. Consider the following tic-tac-toe position:
~
~
It is currently X's tum to move. Use the MINIMAX approach to determine what move X s
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence EECS 348
Programming Assignment 1 Intro to Python
Due Friday April 8th at 11:59pm
(to be completed SOLO NOT IN GROUPS)
In this course you will complete your programming assignments in Python, a language that I think
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence EECS 348
Programming Assignment 3 Sudoku (Constraint Satisfaction)
This is a GROUP assignment. You may form a group of up to 3 students total (no more
than 3). You may also work alone or in a pair. You will submit o
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence EECS 348
Programming Assignment 2 Mancala!
This is a GROUP assignment. You may form a group of up to 3 students total (no more
than 3). You may also work alone or in a pair. You will submit only ONE assignment for
t
Distinguishing Text from Graphics
in On-line Handwritten Ink
Christopher M. Bishop, Markus Svensen
Microsoft Research
7 J J Thomson Avenue
Cambridge CB3 0FB, UK
cfw_cmbishop,[email protected]
Geoffrey E. Hinton
Department of Computer Science
Universi
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence EECS 348
Assignment 4 Sentiment Analysis
This is a GROUP assignment. You may form a group of up to 3 students total (no more than 3).
You may also work alone or in a pair. You will submit only ONE assignment for the
Local Search
Big Picture - AI
Problem Solving/Search
Perception
Learning
Language Understanding
Knowledge Representation
Reasoning (using Knowledge)
Robotics
Etc
N-Queens problem
Alternative Approach
Random Search
1. Select (random) initial state (initial
Intelligent Agents,
Problem Formulation
and Search
How do we make a vacuum "smart?"
Vacuum,
clean the house!
Um
OK?
This one's got
no chance
How do we represent this task?
Hmmm where
to begin?
We want the vacuum to "clean the house." What does this mean?
Bayesian Networks
Bayesian Network
Independence assumptions
Seems to be necessary for probabilistic inference to
be practical.
Nave Bayes Method
Makes independence assumptions that are often not
true
Also called Idiot Bayes Method for this reason.
B
Constraint Satisfaction (edge
labelling application)
Summary from last time
Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP)
Variables, domains and constraints
CSP as a search problem
Backtracking algorithm
General heuristics
Forward checking
Removing Arch I
Local Search and Constraint
Satisfaction
Big Picture - AI
Problem Solving/Search
Perception
Learning
Language Understanding
Knowledge Representation
Reasoning (using Knowledge)
Robotics
Etc
Local Search algorithms
In many optimization problems, the path
Adversarial Search Cont
Properties of -
Pruning does not affect final result
However, effectiveness of pruning affected by?
Resource limits
Suppose we have 100 secs, explore 104
nodes/sec
106 nodes per move
Standard approach (Shannon, 1950):
evaluatio
Local Search!
N-Queens problem
Alternative Approach
Random Search
1. Select (random) initial state (initial guess at
solution)
2. If not goal state, make local modification to
improve current state
3. Repeat Step 2 until goal state found (or out of
time)
Supervised Learning
Evaluation (via Sentiment
Analysis)
Independence: Intuition
l
Events are independent if one has nothing
whatever to do with others. Therefore, for two
independent events, knowing one happening
does not change the probability of the oth
CS 151: Reasoning with Knowledge
and Probability Theory (Review?)
Techniques for Implementing Policies
Search
Reasoning with knowledge
and uncertainty
At the core of this class
will be several
techniques for Policy
design and implementation
Reasoning with
EECS 348: Informed Search
Tree Search Algorithm
1. Add the initial state (root) to the <fringe>
2. Choose a node (curr) to examine from the
<fringe> (if there is nothing in <fringe> - FAILURE)
3. Is curr a goal state?
If so, SOLUTION
If not, continue
4.
5
Propositional Logic and AI
The Wumpus World
Performance measure
gold +1000, death -1000
-1 per step, -10 for using the arrow
Environment
Squares adjacent to wumpus are smelly
Squares adjacent to pit are breezy
Glitter iff gold is in the same square
Sh
CS 348:
First Order Logic/
First Order Predicate Calculus
and Knowledge Representation
Last Time: Propositional Logic
alarm ^ nighttime => burglar
stars => nighttime
nighttime => dark
dark => nighttime
burglar => crime
crime ^ dark => unsafe
alarm => nois
This document is intended to guide your studying but the
major topics and example types of questions lists are not
at all exhaustive, meaning that anything from this quarter
(lectures and reinforced in readings) is fa
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence EECS 348
Assignment 5 Sketch Recognition
This is a GROUP assignment. You may form a group of up to 3 students total (no more than 3).
You may also work alone or in a pair. You will submit only ONE assignment for the