Subsistence Studies in Archaeology
Study of subsistence in archaeology has two major areas of
1)Determination of ancient diet
2)Study of ancient food getting strategies
Main Forms of Subsistence Evidence
a)Food Remains [Faunal and Botanical remain
Reconstructing Social Organization Lecture
Social organization refers to:
a)How people organize into basic groups
Includes, family, kinship and marriage forms and linkages
b)Societys degree of social inequality or hierarchy
Use concepts from Cultural anth
Dating Methods in Archaeology
State whether artifact, layer or site is older or younger than
Can not provide a date in years [calendrical date]
a)Law of Superposition
States: in vertical sequence of layers within a site, younges
The Archaeological Record
Definition: entire data base analyzed by archaeologists to study
Consists of 5 units of analysis: artifacts, features, ecofacts, sites, and
1)Artifacts: portable remains that show evidence of human
Ceramic Analysis Lecture
Earliest clay artifacts: figurines from central Europe [Upper
Paleolithic Period 30,000 B.P.]
Earliest clay containers (pottery): 20,000 B.P. in China
[Xianrendong Site]; Japan [Jomon Culture 16,000 B.P.]
In Americas, ceramics app
Archaeological Fieldwork: Reconnaissance and
Answer two key questions:
i)How do archaeologists find sites?
ii)How do archaeologists excavate them once found?
Cases where no archaeologists present at initial disc
1. What does twos complement mean?
a. Taking twos complement of a binary integer means flip all of the bits and add 1.
b. Taking twos complement is a mathematical procedure to negate a binary integer.
c. Twos complement i