Digestive System Test Notes
Physically digest the food through chewing, which increases surface area for
2. Salivary glands:
Water helps the swallowing process and used in hydrolytic reaction.
Salivary amylase (ptyalin) break
Questions about the CNS
The PNS is mainly composed of the brain and the spinal cords.
Fill in the table below.
Some parts are allocortex.
Located in the head
Protected by the skull
Close to the pri
Lifestyle changes can help you prevent high blood pressure. These changes are especially
important for people who have risk factors for high blood pressure, such as:
Family history, race, or age.
Lifestyle changes include 6 main s
Hypertension is the measuring of the pressure or force of blood against the walls of your blood
vessels called arteries. The force of the blood inside a blood vessel determines the blood
pressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80
Laboratory (Amino Acid Sequence In A Protein)
T = Thymine
A = Adenine
C = Cytosine
G = Guanine
2. The mRNA strands would consist of those codons: A-U-G-U-G-U-G-C-CU-U-A-C-C-C-A-U-U-U-U-U-U-G
Where DNA is located
Information Center and
of the cell
The most well known part of it is the nucleolus
is the nucleus membrane
Double membrane with a distance
of the membrane have
Biology 12 Pancreas to Small Intestines
1. Water for hydrolysis
2. Sodium bicarbonate buffers chyme to pH 8.3
3. Lipase breaks down lipids
4. Trypsinogen precursor of Trypsin
5. Nucleases enzyme that digests nucleic acids
Biology 12 Absorption of Nutrients
Villi are tiny, finger-like projections (about 0.5-1 mm in length) that have
supplementary extensions called microvilli, have a huge surface area, and come out
of the wall of the small intestine. Villi are made out
Biology 12 Circulatory System
Pulmonary vs. Systemic circulation
Arteries and veins going from heart to lungs and back
o From right atrium and ventricle
Carries deoxygenated blood to lungs, comes back in oxygenated in veins
Bio 12 Nervous System
Nerves: process and send info fast (ex. stepping on a nail)
Hormones: process and send info slow (ex. growth hormone)
Central nervous system: brain + spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: cranial + spinal nerves
Neuron: cell that en
A model used to
membranes, in it, the
membranes are described
as a structurally and
lipid bilayer studded with
A substance dissolved in a
solvent to form a solution
Usually solids dissolved
within the solvent; the
solute is usually the
desired molecule which
is diffused across
Reproductive System Test Notes
Male Reproductive System:
Sperms are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes by a process
Sperm cells continuously divide by mitosis.
1 daughter cell remains as the new germ cell, and the o
People with type 1 diabetes may have the following signs and
mental awareness decreases
extreme thirst and hunger
frequent need to urinate
frequent skin infections, urinary tract infections or vaginitis
Disorders of the Kidney
Kidney stones are hard granules that can be formed in the renal pelvis. There are several
types of kidney stones based on the type of crystals of which they consist. The majority are
calcium oxalate stones, followed b
Biology 12 Circulatory Test Notes
Arterial wall has three layers.
Middle layer is the thickest layer and consists of smooth muscle that can contract to
regulate blood flow and blood pressure.
Inner layer is called endothelium with a connec
Biology Cell Organelle Activity Project
Description of the activity:
Title: Musical Table Cell Membrane
1. Start off the presentation through a brief powerpoint, which summarizes the
functions, structures, and significa
Bio 12 Respiratory Test Notes
Nasal cavity: Main entrance for air.
Pharynx : Common passageway for air
Warmed or cold air inhaled to near body temperature.
Voice box and has vocal
cords. When epiglottis opens,
air is able to pass.
Blood Pressure and Cells Notes
When left ventricle contracts, blood is forced into the aorta and then into other
systemic arteries under pressure. Systolic pressure results from blood being forced
into the arteries during ventricular sys
Cell Analogy Explanation
Golgi Body (A shopping mall):
The Golgi apparatus is shaped like hollow pancakes, which it is also similar to a
mall, as it is hollow on the inside. Inner face is directed towards the nucleus and
Depolarization phase of the Action potential All Na+
gates open. K+ gates remain closed. Na+ rushes into lower
concentration and voltage, axoplasm become less negative.
Threshold Potential Some Na+ gates open. Allows small
amount of Na+ o r
Recombinant DNA Case Study
A farmer in Kenya has been given a tempting offer by some American
biological engineers. They tell him that if he uses their genetically modified
bean seeds he will no longer be required to buy costly pesticides and he will
Doodle of it!
- plant cell: right
under the cell wall
- animal cell:
structure that which
- phospholipids bilayer
- proteins float in bilayer
- membrane skeleton
surrounds the cell
Questions about the PNS
1. The PNS includes the cranial and spinal nerves.
2. Spinal nerves regulate organs of the body without conscious control.
3. Cranial nerves lead to muscles and regulate by conscious control.
4. The overarching function of the auto
Biology 12 The Digestive System
The digestive system consists mainly of a long muscular tube, the digestive tract.
starts at the mouth, continues via the oesophagus and stomach to the
intestines, and ends at the anus.
also relies on the pancreas, live