- The study of cells had its birth with the invention of the microscope. Advances in
Cytology (study of cell) took place in the 1900s with the invention of better scanning
- in the late 1830s two German biologists, Schleiden (a bo
Living With Bacteria
A) Prevention of Monerans
- There are many different methods for killing or impeding the growth of
iv) Using Preservatives:
vi) Bacterial Survival
Acids, Bases and Buffers
Examples of solutions at this pH
compared to distilled water
10,000,000 ; Battery acid, Strong Hgdroflouric Acid
1,000,000 Hydrochloric acid secreted
tag stomach lining
Life as we know it, is based on the chemistry of organic molecules. To be
organic a molecule must have a CARBON and hydrogen in it.
- For example; Vinegar (CH3CH20H) is organic, whereas water (H20) and (C02)
Organisms have the ability to adapt and change according to their
environment; if they did not have this design they would not tolerate changes
in their environment and they would become extinct.
The mechanisms of evolution act as the driv
Carbo-Loading: Endurance athletes that must occasionally sustain long periods of exercise,
will prepare for the event in the following way:
Step 1. About a week before the event, adjust your carbohydrate intake, if needed, so that
it's about 50 to 55 perc
Al Structural Levels of Organization
- Least Complex -) Most Complex
- Cell : The smallest "living" unit of structure in our body. Ex. A fat cell
Tissue : Teams of cells with a common function
Ex. Striated muscle tissue
Organ : Teams of
Structure of water:
In a covalent bond atoms share electrons to become stable. In water, each hydrogen
shares a pair of electrons with oxygen. The oxygen atom is much larger and tends
to attract the shared electrons more. Therefore, oxygen has a p
1. What is the name given to the
most commonly used microscope? _
Label the diagram below, use figure 2-12 on p.34 and the word bank below.
Nutrient Groups Macronutrients
A) Background Terms:
- Nutrition: Food we eat.
- Proper nutrition requires a balance of food types:
1.Carbohydrates, 2. Fats and 3. Proteins, (Macronutrients) and a balance of essential
(Micronutrients) 4. Vitamins and 5. Mi
Analysis of Result and Questions
1. a) Crude caffeine = 0.02 g
b) Pure caffeine = 0.02 g
2. 0.02 g / 5.10 g x 100% = 0.392 % caffeine
3. 0.02 g / 0.02 g x 100% = 100% yield
4. 7 minutes was selected for this experiment, because there are not more
The cell theory consists of 4 main points:
1. All living things are made up of cells.
The cell is the basis of all living organisms.
They range from single living cell to millions of cell working together.
2. The cell is the structural unit
1. An organelle is a cell structure in which functions are carried out to ensure the cells
2. Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane that separates interior of the cell from its
3. Within the cell is a jelly-lik
Who was affected by climate change?
Everyone in the world
Especially Asian and African
The poorest countries will suffer earliest and most
What caused climate change?
The world is becoming a greenhouse
CO2 layer is getting thicker
1. Reddish-brown organs
2. About four inches long, two
Wide, and one inch thick
1. Removes urine
2. Maintains H2O balance
3. Regulates composition of
1. Muscular tube
2. Around 25-30cm for adults
1. Moves urine
A) Hazardous Household Product Symbols.
B) Workplace Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS) Symbols.
Poisonous and Infectious
Material Causing Other
Name: William Thomas Astbury
Date of birth: 25th February 1898
Date of death: 4th June 1961
His father, William Edwin
Astbury, was a potter and
provided comfortably for his
Cell Organelles and Functions
- Biggest organelle in animal cell.
- Positive charged part of atom.
- control chemical reaction
- make energy.
- Make cellular res