Monomeric unit: simple sugar or monosaccharide.
A monosaccharide is a polyhydroxy:
- aldehyde (aldose); or
- ketone (ketose)
A monosaccharide is also classified by its number of carbon atoms:
- in living things, usually 3 or 7
Energy Changes in Metabolism
capacity to do work
required by cells to maintain organization
flows from the sun and is not recycled
States of energy:
- kinetic the energy of motion
- potential stored energy; converts to kinetic
Gene: segment of DNA that contains instructions for a particular cell product.
mRNA: intermediate gene product that directs polypeptide synthesis by
specifying order of amino acids.
The nucleotide language of nucleic acids must be translated into ami
Transcription or RNA synthesis
o process of making RNA from DNA
Segment of DNA containing instructions for a particular cell product.
The cell makes the product only when needed.
When the product is made, the gene is expressed.
Requirements for DNA replication
process of copying DNA molecules
must occur before cell division
is semi-conservative each new double helix contains one strand of conserved from
the parent molecule plus one new st
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
the genetic material
stores information required for cells and organisms to develop, grow and reproduce.
RNA ribonucleic acid
directs and carries out polypeptide (protein) synthesis
regulates cell function and synthes
Lipids are organic molecules that:
vary from each other in structure and function
are soluble in nonpolar, organic compounds
are insoluble in water
Several types of lipids contain fatty acids:
A fatty acid is Amphipathic
a hydrophobic, unbranc
Regulation of enzymatic activities
Cells regulate enzymatic activity using:
coenzymes and cofactors
When a product in a metabolic pathway is abundant, it binds to
Catalyst: substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed.
Enzymes: protein catalyst of biological reaction.
Non-enzyme catalysts increase reaction rates by 102 or 104
Enzymes increase reaction rates by up to 1020
Protein identification techniques are critical in medicine.
Proteins can serve as:
disease markers to aid in diagnosis or prognosis
We can separate and identify amino acids based on differences in:
Three Dimensional Protein Structure
Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Protein functions include:
Transport of molecules or cells
Support for cells and components
Immuno protection, and
Amino acids, peptides and proteins
- do most of the work in the cell
- are also important in cell structure
Monomeric units amino acids
In cells, 20 different naturally occurring amino acids
All amino acids have a common platfor
Subatomic Particles give the element its properties.
Nucleus a membrane bound organelle that is the command center of the cell.
Negative charged electrons outside the nucleus are held in place by the atoms positively
charged nucleus electros
Biochemistry the study of the molecules found in living organisms, and or their
Metabolism all the chemical reactions that take place in an organism.
Biomolecules - a chemical compound that naturally occurs in living organi
oxidation of organic molecules to produce ATP
includes various metabolic pathways
uses exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions
first metabolic pathway of cellular respiration