A 0.200 g sample of benzene (C6H6) is burned in a calorimeter whose heat
capacity is 1602 J/°C. The combustion of benzene causes a temperature rise of
521°C. Calculate the motar emQaLfya, o wmlous+'oa,,gf
Van der Waals Forces:
Present between all chemical species.
Divided into two types: dipole-dipole forces and London dispersion forces.
Dipole-dipole forces: when the substance contains polar molecules, the positive end of
one molecule will be attracted to
History of bonding:
1852- Edward Frankland stated that each element has a fixed bonding capacity.
1858- Friedrich Kekul extended the idea to illustrating a bond as a dash between
bonding atoms, that is, what we now call a structural formula.
The purpose of this investigation is to create a generalization about the relative effect that
potential catalysts have on the rate of a chemical reaction.
What is the relative effect of the chemicals tested as
8.1 Introduction to Chemical Analysis
Qualitative: identification of a specific substance based on descriptors.
Quantitative: quantity of substance based on numerical values and measurements.
Methods of Analysis
3 main methods:
Gravimetric analysis= stoic
Ionic compounds are also attracted to one another by strong forces (not quite a strong
as metallic though)
I.e. ionic crystals
So in order to melt them you need to add quite a bit of energy (high temp) to overcome
Order of bps
Polar vs. Nonpolar Molecules
tetrahedral: if all atoms attached have the same pull (in or out), if different atoms
trigonal planar: if all atoms attached have the same pull (in or out), if different atoms
pyramidal: as long as there i
8.4 Titration Analysis
Volumetric analysis: technique used to find amount of a certain substance by doing a titration
Titration: adding a certain volume of solution with a known concentration (titration) to a
fixed volume of solution being anal