Thermal energy flows from hot to cold
The difference in temperature offers the
opportunity to run a heat engine between
the bodies and extract useful mechanical
However, to be practical, an engine m
Analog and Digital Signals
Digital data is stored as a series of binary
The binary number system uses only two
digits: 0 and 1
The number system we normally use is
known as the decimal system and uses
the digits 0 through 9
Do not all fixd Bodies, when heated beyond
a certain degree, emit Light and shine; and is
not this Emission performd by the vibrating
motion of its parts?
Isaac Newton, Opticks, published 1704.
Everything is measured relative to a frame
For most things measuring relative to the
Earth is acceptable because we can
ignore the Earths rotational motion.
Rotation cannot be ignored when making
Analog and Digital Storage Media
Vinyl LP (Record)
An LP is an analog sound recording medium consisting of a flat vinyl disk with an inscribed
modulated spiral groove. The groove cut in the surface represents an exact mechanical copy of
the analog signal.
Most common way of producing electricity
Natural Gas 23%
The fossil fuel is burned and the thermal
energy is used to power steam engines
which drive the generators
Gasoline (and Diesel fuel) is used power
Any two conductors that are separated by
either a vacuum or an insulator are called
Consider two parallel plates a distance d
apart as shown
The plates are connected to a source of
Goin around and around and .
An object that moves in a circle at
constant speed v, is said to experience
uniform circular motion.
The magnitude of the velocity remains
constant, but the direction is constantly
Keplers 1st Law
The path of each planet around the Sun is
an elipse with the Sun at one focus.
Keplers 2nd Law
Each planet moves so that an imaginary
line drawn from the sun to the planet
During most collisions, we usually dont
know how force varies with time, so
analysis becomes either very difficult or
In ALL collisions, momentum is
If no heat is produced in the collision, then
Motion in a Gravitational Field
Another Look at Gravitational
We previously noted that it took work to lift
an object off the surface of the earth.
In more general terms, it takes work to
separate two objects.
Work can be calculated by
(Why are we attracted to that big
bright object in the sky)
Newtons Big Idea
Newton developed the idea that two bodies
exert a force on each other over a distance.
Specifically, sun and earth
He concluded tha