Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory
Hybridization is when structural changes in the valence level atomic orbitals occurs to accommodate
Carbon, the most commonly used example, needs to make four bonds but only has two partially
The Science of Alcohol
By: Tushar Dhawan, Jay Shah, Hassan Toor
What is Alcohol?
Grade 12 Chemistry Textboo
How Alcohol is made
Reactions of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons have different PP depending on the length of chain and # of branches.
The longer the chain the higher the MP and BP.
This is due to London Dispersion (intermolecular) forces.
Hydrocarbons can then be separated by
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object which is due to
the object's temperature.
a black body is an object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls onto it.
Ie. neither reflect
Structure, Polarity and Properties
Structure of Ionic / Molecular Compounds
Molecules exist, as defined by the formula, as separate entities from their neighbours.
The covalent bonds within the molecules are rather strong and gives the molecul
Catalysts work by changing the activation energy for a reaction by providing a new mechanism or
reaction path through which the reaction can proceed.
When the EA* is lowered, the reaction rate is increased.
Inhibitors decrease reaction rate by
Chemistry is the study of matter and its transformations.
Thermochemistry is the study of the energy changes that accompany these transformations.
In chemical reactions, bonds are broken and reformed, and thermal energy may be given off or
Properties of Functional Groups
CFCs destroy the ozone layer.
Used in refrigerators and air conditioners, and helps give Teflon its non-stick properties.
The difference in electronegativity between the C-halogen increases the strength of
Oxidation: the loss of electrons by a species, leading to an increase in oxidation # of 1 or more atoms
Reduction: the gain of electrons by a species, leading to a decrease in oxidation # of 1 or more atoms
Oxidizing agents: the
Hunds Rule every orbital in a sub shell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is
doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
Aufbau Principle The principle postulates a hypotheti
To determine the equilibrium constant you must consider the generic equation:
aA + bB
cC + dD
It is assumed that the coefficients of the balanced equation are the orders for the rate law
Rearrange to solve for
Where A, B
The Science of Alcohol
What is Alcohol?
Alcohol is an organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl functional
group; R-OH. The type of alcohol found in beer and wine is called ethanol, which is also the
Initial Rate and Rate Law
The rate of a reaction is a positive quantity that expresses how the concentration of a reactant or
product changes with time.
2N2O5 -> 4NO2 + O2
so, rate of the reaction is = -change[N2O5]
So, in general, for 3A + 5B
A reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical
change occurs, from reactants through to products.
Collision model particles collide converting kinetic energy into potential energy fo
Le Chateliers Principle
If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to
counteract the change.
Change in Concentration
Suppose an equilibrium is established between four substances A, B, C a
Acids and Bases
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
Acid a substance that produces H3O when dissolved in water.
Base a substance that produces OH when dissolved in water.
Limited to water solutions.
Acid: proton donor
Base: proton accep
It is often possible to calculate Ho for a reaction from listed Ho values of other reactions
Enthalpy is a state function
It depends only upon the initial and final state of the reactants/products and not on the specific
pathway taken to get
In the past we assumed that all reactions went to completion.
However, when a reaction takes place in a closed vessel the system reaches a state of equilibrium.
A DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM is established when two reversible processes occu
Solubility - the concentration of a saturated solution of solute in a particular solvent at a particular temp (max)
A visible dynamic equilibrium is reached for a saturated solution with excess solute, in a closed vessel - rate of
Polarity and Molecular Structure
As a solid, exists as a crystal lattice of a multiple of the functional unit.
Each + ve ion is surrounded by ve ions, and vice versa.
Individual ionic attractions are very weak, but the sum of the