Paper 1 Overview
Water is a good coolant because it takes a lot of energy to increase the temperature of water.
Galactose is a monosaccharide; lactose is a disaccharide.
The feather colour of a certain breed of chicken is controlled by codominant alleles.
Two main categories of mutations: chromosomal mutations and point mutations.
Without mutations, there can be no evolution!
Changes to a single base pair.
Adaptions for productions and release of gametes
In females, adaptations for fertilization and embryonic development
The role of testosterone
Determines sex (testosterone level causes the development of male genita
Childbirth and pregnancy
Summary: Comparing spermatogenesis and oogenesis
Compare spermatogenesis and oogenesis table in Pearson textbook
Oogenesis Fig 46.13 p. 924
Spermatozoa absorb some of the fructose in the semen.
Sexual Reproduction Part 2
undifferentiated germ cells (oogonia) divide mitotically until
the 5th month of gestation
Oogonia begin the 1st meiotic division but do not complete it
(Prophase I) primary oocytes (2n, diploid)
No further de
Amino acid a certain name given to each codon (used in describing the protein sequence)
- specific grouping of three bases (triplet code)
-must be transcribed into RNA first
Base pairs occurs between a purine and pyrimidine, known as compl
Change the message of mRNA into protein.
The mRNA molecule that was made in the nucleus moves to the cytoplasm through a
Transcribing mRNA used the same language with nucleotides but now are translating
into a diff
Hormone: a chemical substance produced in one location in the body and carried
through the blood stream to effect change on target cells.
Most are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
Hormones to know: insulin, glucagon, thyroxin, leptin,
The nervous system
Comprises the central nervous system (CNS: the brain and spinal cord) and the
peripheral nervous system (PNS, including spinal nerves and cranial nerves).
Messages are sent in both directions (between the muscles and the CNS) by cells
Homeostasis = same state
The human body acts to keep many variables within limits
These variables include:
o Blood pH
o Blood CO2 concentration
o Blood glucose concentration
o Body temperature
o Water balance within tissues
The Mammalian Circulatory System
A closed, complete, double system
Can be divided into:
a) cardiac circulation route taken by blood in the heart
pulmonary circulation route taken by blood from the
heart to the lungs and back
systemic circulation r
HOW BLOOD TRAVELS THROUGH THE BODY
Directions: Fill in the blanks below with these words. Each word may be used once.
Words to Be Used in Filling in the Blanks
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
DISORDERS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
hardening of the arteries
caused by narrowing of blood vessels due cholesterol
or other fatty materials becoming deposited under the
inner lining of arteries
cause hypertension, heart a
HOW THE HEART PUMPS
1. Both atria fill with blood at the same time.
2. The sino-atrial node (SA node), the hearts pacemaker,
sends an impulse that stimulates the atria muscles to
3. Both ventricles fill with blood. The atrioventricular valves
Bio Test Review (Circulatory System and Heart)
1. Describe how the heart pumps. (Not the direction of blood flow.)
a. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, via the superior vena cava and
inferior vena cava. When the right atrium fills, the blood the
Cardiac Output and Fitness
Amount of blood pumped by the heart
Measure of volume of blood pumped from each ventricle
Measure of the level of Oxygen delivery to the body
Two factors for Cardiac Output
1- Stroke volume
Amount of blood for
SBI 3U Internal Systems and Regulation
CONTROL AND REGULATION OF HEARTRATE
Read pages 304 306 in your text and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of
paper. These are your notes for this section!
HEARTBEAT (PG. 304 305)
1. A) Whe
What is Blood Pressure?
Is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries
Due to pumping action of the heart and resistance of the elastic
walls of the arteries
How is blood Pressure Measured
Instrument called sphygmomanometer
CIRCULATION IN ANIMALS
Describe the major characteristics of the transport systems of different animals
What to Do:
Using pages 282 287 of your textbook, complete the following chart.
5.1: Communities and Ecosystems
Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem and ecology.
Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph.
Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs.
Describe what is meant by a food cha
1. Communities and Ecosystems
1. Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem, ecology and trophic level.
Species: a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Habitat: the environment in which a species
Ecology and Conservation (Option G)
G1: Community Ecology
Outline the factors that affect the distribution of plant species including temperature, water, light, soil pH,
salinity, and mineral nutrients.
Explain the factors that affect the distribution of
Plant Science Notes
Plant Structure and Growth
Land plants are divided into 3 major groups:
No conducting tissue
Small, growing close to the ground