UNIT 1 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Alkanes A subgroup of hydrocarbons whose members do not
have multiple bonds between carbon atoms.
(i.e.- all C-C are single bonds)
The international Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
Chemical Reactions of Hydrocarbons Alkanes:
1. Combustion Reactions:
In grade 11 you studied combustion reactions extensively.
Recall that the products of the complete combustion of a
hydrocarbon are carbon dioxide and water. If the combustion of a
Cycloalkanes are named by attaching the prefix cyclo- to the
names of the alkanes possessing the same number of carbon
atoms as the ring.
Naming the substituted cycloalkanes is fairly straightforward.
Haloalkanes (AKA: alkyl halides)
These are hydrocarbon compounds in which a halogen atom (F,
Cl, Br, I) replaces one or more hydrogen atoms of an alkane,
alkene, or alkyne. Haloalkanes are classified as being primary (1 o),
secondary (2o), or tertiary (3
The functional group used to identify carboxylic acids is called the
carboxyl group (COOH). It has a carbonyl group bonded on one
side to the hydroxyl group (OH) and on the other to an alkyl
The carboxyl functional group looks lik
Alkenes: This subgroup of hydrocarbons has members that contain
one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (C=C).
Naming alkenes: (very similar to naming alkanes)
1) Determine the parent name by selecting the longest carbon
that contains the carbon-carb
The functional group that characterizes alcohols is the hydroxyl
(OH) group attached to a tetrahedral carbon atom:
As with alkyl halides, alcohols are classified into three groups:
primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. This is based on the
AldehydesAldehydes are identified by the carbonyl functional group.
This group is bonded on one side to an alkyl group and on the
side to a hydrogen atom. (With the exception of formaldehyde.)
The carbonyl functional group is:
Molecules of ethers contain 2 alkyl groups attached to one
oxygen atom. These alkyl groups may be the same or
The general formulae for ethers are:
(if the alkyl groups are identical)
R O R
(if the alkyl groups are different)
Benzene, C6H6, is the simplest of all aromatic compounds. All
aromatics have a base structure of one or more rings made up of
6 carbon atoms.
From experimental research, we find that the atoms of a benzene
molecule lie in a plane, with
ANTHROPOLOGIST VIDEO PRESENTATION
1. Work with a partner to research one of the following
Lewis Henry Morgan
Alfred Russel Wallace
SECTION 2: New Grade 11:
Most of the transition metals have a variety of
possible positive valence charges. This being the case, it is
important that we develop some method for distinguishing
one positive ion of the element from a s