43% of poor live in central cities, greatest visibility, focus of most relief
efforts, Yet growing WORSE.
Combination of: poor schools, limited employment and lack of skills and
William Julius Wilson-th
Learn attitudes, values and behaviors appropriate within cultural context.
Develop distinctive personality (attitudes, temperament, needs, etc.)
Micro: behavioral expectations and inter
Social Structure as a Negotiated Order
Structure arises out of the face-to-face interactions of people who are operating
from both a shared sense of reality (culture and socialization) as well as a
individual and group oriented biogra
Groups and Formal Organizations
Consumption and Group Behavior
Direct Selling Organizations:
Nicole Woolsey Biggart (1989):Charismatic, Missionary zeal, Female, often
Dimaggio (1990): income, marital power and sense of c
Deviance and Control
Social order-Social Control
Order is maintained through social control
Control occurs at all levels
Most respect and accept
Expect same of others (predictability)
Failure leads to sanctions (formal and informa
Social Inequality and Economic Stratification
Opportunity in the U.S.
Black males in Harlem: 40% reach 65.
On the Titanic: 60% of 1st class, 36% of 2nd class and 24% of 3rd class
Income and family in Canada (local copy)
Mobility in the U.S.A.
Belief in upward mobility is a central element of our system.
However, this does not necessarily equate with the USA being a land of
Importance of Race, Gender, and Family.
Blau and Duncan (1967) an
Objective-researcher. ? of indicators. Prestige ranking versus esteem. Inclusion of
(see "Class Matters" at the NY Times, NY Times 2010 Census Explorer)
Tiny, rich and powerf
Class and Life Chances
Education: upper 1/5-79% go to college, bottom 1/5- 44% (plus type of
Health: Infant mortality-70% higher in poor families, poorer more likely to
suffer from serious illness (physical and psychological)
2011: Poverty at 15.9% (up .6% from 2010, 48.5 million people)
Soaring Poverty Casts Spotlight on Lost Decade, NY Times, September
The Impoverished States of America, NY Times, September 17, 2011
2011: Childhood Pover
Global Poverty (see Gapminder: http:/www.gapminder.org)
In "less developed countries" (per capita income: $5,000) most people live
no better than the poor in the USA
In "least-developed countries" (50 nation
TIME as an culture product:
What is time?
Duration and individual experience.
Society and collective work require shared understanding.
How we measure and the meaning of time.
Pre/post industrial society. Cyclical vs. lineal.