Police brutality- police use unnecessary force to make an arrest Racial profiling- when race is a significant factor in a police officers decision to pull someone over
Street crime-homicide, robbery, auto theft, rape, & aggravated assault blacks and Hispa
Reading 22: The Code of the Streets by Elijah Anderson
How is oppositional culture often detrimental to children and
young adults in the communities Anderson examined? These kids
arent given any boundaries, therefore they are more likely to get
R1. Outline the authors argument for why we see different skin colors around the world.
Different skin colors are accounted for by the amount of melanin in a person. This varies based
on adaptations from the suns ultraviolet rays, and where you are locate
Criminal Justice 1
Violating Amendment 4
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is the part
of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires any warrant
to be judi
Studying Women: Why Gender Matters
Ch 1: Why Study Women?
What is sociology?
o The systematic study of human society and social interaction
o The systematic scientific study.
What is sex?
o The anatomical difference between male and femal
Alyson K. Spurgas, Ph.D.
SOC/WMST 308: Gender and Society
The term culture is defined as the set of definitions of reality held
in common by people who share a distinctive way of life (Thinking About
Women, 27). Cultur
The Role of the State
Functions of the State:
Hobbs-social contract, preservation of order.
Arbitration of disputes
Planning and direction
Affairs with other states
Also, care and protection, economic,.
Power and Property
A social relationship vs. a thing
Rights, privileges, and responsibilities
Ownership and power
Communism (primitive v
Membership by birth
Link to political structure
Formal training for leaders
Few demands on members
Similar to above, but no formal link
Social Institutions: Religion
Modern society and the process of secularization (Rate of attendance, see current)
Sociology: Not a question of truth, but of social aspects:
1 God of War
2 Male Gods
Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
Individual vs. Group.
Versus Dominant Group
Differential access to societal resources.
1 Unequal treatment.
2 Physical/cultural stigma.
3 Ascribed status.
4 Group solidarity (in a
Types of discrimination:
1 U.S. 1954: Brown v Board of Ed.-Topeka
2 1964 Civil Rights Act-EEO, Affirmative Action
3 1987-expanded to ethnic groups as well
Dominant Group Privilege
Inequality even in egalitarian western societies
PLUS; exploitation of developing nations=exploited labor of women
Also: Even more devalued-Female children in India, China.
Women, Work and the USA
Steady increase this
What does it Mean to Be Old?
What is Old?
Atchley: Labeling, Work and personal value. Economic Reality
In Our Society today Reality:
Victim of Crime, No, but fear! Yves Brillon: "Generalized fears"
Work and self w
The Crisis of Change
One in four births-unmarried mothers (1 in 10 1970)
~50% of all children will spend some time in a single parent family (85%
African-American). 1995: 21% of White families, 36% of Hispanic
Looking Theoretically at the Family
Basic building block of Society
Care and protection
Regulation of sexual behavior
Affection and companionship
Crisis vs. Change
The Family and Education
Coleman: Family and Schools
Industrialization and the Transformation of the Household: Gender roles.
family as unit of consumption vs. unit of production. Work outside of the
Shift from family responsi
TIME as an culture product:
What is time?
Duration and individual experience.
Society and collective work require shared understanding.
How we measure and the meaning of time.
Pre/post industrial society. Cyclical vs. lineal.
Learn attitudes, values and behaviors appropriate within cultural context.
Develop distinctive personality (attitudes, temperament, needs, etc.)
Micro: behavioral expectations and inter
Social Structure as a Negotiated Order
Structure arises out of the face-to-face interactions of people who are operating
from both a shared sense of reality (culture and socialization) as well as a
individual and group oriented biogra
Groups and Formal Organizations
Consumption and Group Behavior
Direct Selling Organizations:
Nicole Woolsey Biggart (1989):Charismatic, Missionary zeal, Female, often
Dimaggio (1990): income, marital power and sense of c
Deviance and Control
Social order-Social Control
Order is maintained through social control
Control occurs at all levels
Most respect and accept
Expect same of others (predictability)
Failure leads to sanctions (formal and informa
Social Inequality and Economic Stratification
Opportunity in the U.S.
Black males in Harlem: 40% reach 65.
On the Titanic: 60% of 1st class, 36% of 2nd class and 24% of 3rd class
Income and family in Canada (local copy)
Mobility in the U.S.A.
Belief in upward mobility is a central element of our system.
However, this does not necessarily equate with the USA being a land of
Importance of Race, Gender, and Family.
Blau and Duncan (1967) an
Objective-researcher. ? of indicators. Prestige ranking versus esteem. Inclusion of
(see "Class Matters" at the NY Times, NY Times 2010 Census Explorer)
Tiny, rich and powerf
Class and Life Chances
Education: upper 1/5-79% go to college, bottom 1/5- 44% (plus type of
Health: Infant mortality-70% higher in poor families, poorer more likely to
suffer from serious illness (physical and psychological)
2011: Poverty at 15.9% (up .6% from 2010, 48.5 million people)
Soaring Poverty Casts Spotlight on Lost Decade, NY Times, September
The Impoverished States of America, NY Times, September 17, 2011
2011: Childhood Pover
Global Poverty (see Gapminder: http:/www.gapminder.org)
In "less developed countries" (per capita income: $5,000) most people live
no better than the poor in the USA
In "least-developed countries" (50 nation
43% of poor live in central cities, greatest visibility, focus of most relief
efforts, Yet growing WORSE.
Combination of: poor schools, limited employment and lack of skills and
William Julius Wilson-th