Part II: Change Ion Concentration
11) Dilute the 1.0M CuNO3 to 0.0010M by counting 18 drops of distilled water into a small test tube, and add 2
drops of the 1.0M CuNO3 solution.
12) Mix well by pouring the solution from one test tube to another several t
Bond Order: describes whether a covalent bond is single, double, or triple
Bond Length: the distance between the centers of two atoms joined by a covalent bond. A
double bond between atoms is shorter than a single bond, and a triple bond is shorter stil
Electronegativity: describes an atoms ability to compete for electrons with other atoms to
which it is bonded
o The higher the EN, the more non-metallic the element; decreases top to bottom,
increases left to right
o Nonpolar bond results when the diff
Allotropy: the existence of two or more forms of an element that differ in their bonding and
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
o If the number of valence electrons in a Lewis structure is odd, there must be an
unpaired electron somewhere
1. What factors can cause a difference between experimental and reported values?
Contamination of solutions would have produced a different redox reaction than what was intended, which
would have yielded a different voltage with respect to the zinc electr
Cu(NO3)2, 1.0 M, 3 mL
Fe(NO3)3, 1.0 M, 2 mL
Iron nail, Fe
Pb(NO3)2, 1.0 M, 2 mL
Lead foil, Pb
Mg(NO3)2,1.0 M, 2 mL
AgNO3, 1.0 M, 2 mL
Zn(NO3)2, 1.0 M, 2 mL
NaCl, 1.0 M, 10 mL
Comparison of the different amounts of energy released by different alcohols.
To determine which alcohol among methanol, ethanol and butanol produces the most
heat energy per gram and per mole.
The combustion of
The purpose of Part 1 of this laboratory is to construct a table listing the reduction potentials of a series of metal
ions in order of ease of reduction. The series of half-cells is constructed by placing a piece of metal into a 1.0 M
This experiment's aim is to find out, enthalpy change of a reaction, and to determine whether
it is exothermic or endothermic.
Table to show Electrode Potentials of Zinc and Copper Ions (V)
Concentration of Zinc Sulphate (mol dm -3)