Respiration: exchange of O and CO between the environment and the cells (includes breathing, gas
exchange, cellular respiration)
Breathing (ventilation): exchange of gases between external environment and lungs
Gas exchange: intake of oxygen and excretion
Biochemistry and Nutrition
Get from food
Energy for cell metabolism (cell growth, mitosis, cell repair)
Larger molecules synthesized by joining separate units
Required in large quantities.
4 types: carbohydrates, proteins, lipid
Ose v ios
1.The liquid mixtures in the boiling tubes 2, 3 and 4 were in 2 immiscible layers and
the mixtures were colourless.
2. Ethyl ethanoate and hydrochloric acid were colourless.
3. Ethyl ethanoate had a "glue" smell.
Concentration of potassium and chloride Ions and nitrate ions added to
the system i.e. volume of potassium chloride Solution added - this can be
controlled by measuring the volume of 0.1M potassium chloride added to
Why do the exact molarity of HCl(aq) used need not to be found out?
This is because the amount of HCl(aq) can be found by titrating tube lA and lB using sodium
hydroxide. The exact amount of HCl added can be found out directly using this m
E . No:
Determining an equilibrium constant
The aim of this experiment is to calculate the equilibrium constant (kc) of the
CH C0 C H
2 2 5(l)
C H 0H
Ob je c tive s :
To observe the effect of different concentrations of ferric nitrate on the
equilibrium between ferric chloride and sodium thiocyanate solutions.
To observe the effect of different concentrations of po
Adding more of the reactant ions in parts 1 and 3 increases the reactant
concentration. ln accordance with Le Chatelier'sprinciple, thisincreases the rates
of the reactions because of the increase in the number of collisions caused among
Pro c e d ure :
1. Rinse all apparatus with distilled water
Take 0.32g of Ferric Chloride and dissolve it in a beaker containing 20ml of
water. This is your solution of 0.1M FeCl3.
3. Take 0.05g of Potassium Thiocyanate and dissolve it in a beaker
Va ria b le s :
Pa r t 1 :
Concentration of Ferric Ions and nitrate ions added to the system i.e.
volume of Ferric Nitrate Solution added
Optical Density of the solution which shows the shift in the equilibrium of
ln part 1, we add ferric nitrate to the ferric thiocyanate solution that we had
prepared. The color of the solution changes from amber to dark red. This is
because the addition of ferric nitrate solution causes an increase in the number of
ferric ions i.e