Fearon, James 1995. Rationalist explanations
of war, International Organization 49 (3):
Fisher, Foger and Ury, William 1981. Getting to
Follett, Mary 1942. Dynamic Administration.
Harper & Row.
Gauthier, David 1986. Morals b
Brams, Steven J and Taylor, Alan D 1996. Fair
Division. Cambridge University Press.
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2006. Methods of Negotiation Research.
Nijhoff (also appeared as International
Negotiation 9 (3) (2004)
Zartman, I William and Touval, Saadia
2007. Mediation before and after 9/11, in
Chester Crocker, Fen Hampson and Pamela
Aall, eds., Unleashing the Dogs of War.
Zeuthen, Frederik 1930. Problem of Monopoly
and Economic Warfare. Routledge and
Beardsely, K (2011) The Mediation Dilemma.
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Bercovitch J and Fretter J (2007) Studying
threefold decision choice (yes, no, continue
talking) (Ikle 1964).
Negotiation is giving something to get
something, so it involves moves from opening positions by both/all sides, although not
necessarily to an equal degree. A negotiated
agreement is a po
The second phase is one of formulation.
Negotiators do not immediately start establishing a meeting point from fixed positions;
implicitly or explicitly, they first establish a
formula for their agreement, consisting of
a common definition of the problem
elaborate on three salient challenges that
international mediation faces in contemporary global diplomacy.
Resistance to negotiation and
The optimism about efficient diplomacy
and peace-making following the end of the
Cold War has today been rep
agreement (ZOPA) where the parties positions overlap, and where? And then similar
questions need to be ascertained from the
other sides point of view. Parties must also
separately or jointly establish preparatory
understanding covering parties to be incl
and mediation have proved limited at best
and counterproductive at worst. She argues
that these attempts at elite-based negotiations have generated several unfortunate
outcomes where, for instance, mediators
have allowed war criminals to participate.
Jnsson, Christer 2002. Bargaining,
negotiation and diplomacy, in Walter
Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse and Beth Simmons,
eds., Handbook of International Relations.
Kanet, Roger and Kolodziej, Edward, eds.,
1991. Cold War as Cooperation. Macmillan.
multi-issue meetings that allowed business to
dipLomAtiC summitry 239
be concluded in a timely and secure manner.
This distinction has more recently become
rather less clear. With the advent of mass communication, summit communication begins
to be indisti
over time to construct an arbitrary set of signals, codes and conventions that serve their
purpose, theorist Christer Jonsson (2012:
21) considers diplomats to be intuitive
Constructed slowly, conscientiously, deliberately, and with great su
214 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF DIPLOMACY
the other party than they cost to the first, the
greater the chances of a successful outcome.
Under these conditions, parties can compensate each other in order to purchase what
matters most to them. Agreement to end the
two modes of mediation and found that principal mediators generally outperform pure
mediators in achieving peace agreements.
Yet, he also underlines that pure mediators
tend to be more effective in reaching territorial and political power-sharing provisio
to dominate the field where large N-studies
and global longitudinal datasets are used to
identify generalisable global patterns (see,
for example, Bercovitch 2002; Regan and
Allan 2006; Greig and Diehl 2012).
Mediation is part of a diplomatic
a solution (a less hurting stalemate) but also
implies subsequent attention to underlying
causes lest they return to bring back the conflict. It is then only after the first two stages
that negotiators turn to details. Optimally,
they can fin
G20 nations, rather than the G8, as the scale
of the financial crisis became apparent.
Economic management has become part of
a more explicit global governance concern
of political leaders. Direct commercial diplomacy has also become a growing feature of
Some studies have the explicit ambition
to prescribe what is considered the most
effective strategy of mediation. Based on an
appropriate diagnosis of the conflicting situation, mediation strategies can be matched
to a specific phase of conflict. Such stu
exacerbated by the growth of supra-national
diplomatic missions such as the EUs diplomatic service (The European External Action
Service, EEAS), a symbolic if not a material
challenge to traditional layers of guidance,
developing a hybrid form of diplomac
Spoilers During Conflict Resolution. Tokyo:
United Nations University Press.
Paffenholz T (2014) Civil Society and Peace
Negotiations: Beyond the InclusionExclusion
Dichotomy. Negotiation Journal, 1, 6991.
Paris R (2004) At Wars End: Building Peace
Tariffs (GATT) (1947) and then the World
Trade Organization (WTO) (1995), the Ozone
Treaty (1987) and Framework Convention
on Climate Change (1995), the Convention/
Organization on Security and Cooperation in
Europe (C/OSCE) (1975/1992), and a myriad
capital (Nickles 2003) Kennans Long
Telegram probably the most famous, and
the Zimmerman Telegram one of the most
dangerous but it also meant greater centralisation of diplomacy evolving into leaders
communicating directly, increasing the contact between
Barry, Brian 1986. Theories of Justice. University
Bendahmane, Diane and McDonald, John,
eds., 1986. Perspectives on Negotiation. US
Government Printing Office.
Bottom, William, Holloway, James, McClury,
Scott, and Mille
if a party feels it needs to prevail in a particular diplomatic negotiation, it is under pressure
to do so in such a manner that the outcome
does not impel the other party above all to
seek revenge (Shell 1999). Diplomacy, said
Cardinal Richelieu (1637),
growth of summits. Disraeli had travelled
by train to Berlin for the Congress of 1878.
He went on to use it as a bargaining tool by
ordering a special train to be made ready so
he could leave prematurely. It worked. An
alarmed Bismarck immediately invited
Smyser, WR 2003. How Germans Negotiate.
Snyder, Scott 1999. Negotiating on the Edge:
North Korean Negotiating Behavior. USIP.
Solomon, Richard 1999. Chinese Negotiating
Spector, Bertram I and Zartman, I William, eds.,
2003. Getting I
American Political Science Association.
Mitchell, Christopher 1995. The right
moment, Paradigms: The Kent Journal of
International Relations 9 (2): 3552.
Mooradian, Moorad and Druckman, Daniel
2003. Hurting stalemate or mediation? The
conflict over Nagorn
although in fact power inequality is always
present and conditions negotiating behavior
(Zartman and Rubin 2000).
All negotiations are asymmetrical, to a
greater or lesser degree; there is no absolute
equality in the real world. While symmetry
has long be
68) underlines, non-state actors fight for their
lack of recognised status while governments
reject claims for proto-political status. The
quest for inclusion of a representative leadership or valid spokesperson in the negotiation
process is a major hurdl
The Paris Conference in 1919 was a turning
point, as democratic politics became a model for
With the dawn of the nuclear age, a new
motive arrived for summit diplomacy, especially as the issue was considered too importan