Utilitarianism is a branch of normative ethics (ethics, searching for norms not in the
sense of what is average, but in the sense of authoritative standards of what it ought to be),
which claims that the only thing that is good is happin
5. David Hume's Argument on Miracles
Miracles are often cited as evidence in support of the idea that God exists, or even as conclusive proof
that he or she does. Few of us witness miracles, we must instead rely on the testimony of those who do.
A 'Mimeme' (meme) acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols or
practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing,
speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept
regard memes as cultura
Rights: liberties and claim-rights.
A classification of rights originally made by Wesley Hohfeld (18791918) lists
I have a liberty to do something, if I am not prevented by some duty from
I have a claim-right to something, if there
2. Descartes' method of doubt.
Cogito ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by Ren Descartes also known as "I think,
therefore I am", but what does it mean?
Even the sorts of axioms and basic premises that rationalist foundationalists wish to star
Empiricism and Rationalism
Empiricism and Rationalism / Philosophy for AS and A2 P.5-16.
In philosophy, there are two main position about the source of all
knowledge. They are called rationalism and empiricism. According to rationalists
(such as Descartes
Moral realism is one main cognitivism theory claims that good and bad are properties of
situations and people, right and wrong are properties of actions.
The basic idea in objectivism
1. our moral opinions are the sorts of thing
Normative ethics and metaethics.
The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and
recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Normative ethics involves arriving at moral standards that regulate right and wrong
8. Deontological approach to ethics.
Deontologists believe that what is right or wrong is a matter of duty. We have
moral duties to do things that it is right to do and moral duties not to do things that it
is wrong to do.
Deontologists deny that whether
There are two points of view on the question: "What is knowledge?".
1) This theory was suggested by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato (428-347 BC). According to this
theory, knowledge requires three conditions:
1. We must believe in the veracity of the