ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.6 Beamwidth Between First Nulls, Half Power Beamwidth, and Directivity of the
LCPESA
The Beamwidth Between First Nulls (BWFN), Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW),
and antenna directivity (D) were defined in Sections 2.7 and 2.9

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.7 Pattern Multiplication
In Section 4.1 we found that the electromagnetic fields E(r ) radiated by an array antenna
equal those radiated by a reference element, E ref (r ) , multiplied by the array factor
ARFAC(, ) or
(4

Tutorial 5 Outline
Introduction to Arrays
The Array Factor for Linear Equally
Spaced Arrays
Linear Arrays with Specified Pattern
Nulls
Linear Uniformly Excited, Equally
Spaced Arrays
1
4.1
Introduction
Chapter
4
Arrays
This chapter will focus on array an

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.5 Broadside and endfire arrays
A broadside array has its main beam perpendicular to the array axis. From the
graphical construction presented in Section 4.4, we conclude that for a broadside array
k o = 0 . Figure 4.13 p

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.4 Linear Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Arrays.
In a Linear Uniformly Excited Equally Spaced Array (LUEESA) with constant
excitation, we choose I i = I 0 , i = 1,., N 1 , i.e., all elements are excited with the same
s

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.2 The Array Factor for Linear Equally Spaced Arrays.
Linear Arrays consist of individual elements arranged along a straight line. In this
and the following sections, we will assume that the array consists of N elements w

Tutorial 5 Outline
Broadside and
end-fire arrays
Pattern
Multiplication
1
4.5
Broadside and end-fire arrays
A broadside array has its main beam perpendicular to the array
axis. We conclude that for a broadside array .
Figure 4.13 plots the array factor f

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
Chapter 4
Arrays
4.1 Introduction
This chapter will focus on array antennas. Arrays are antennas comprised of
multiple physically identical individual elements, which are spatially arranged and excited
with respect to each

ECE 354 Lecture Notes, Chapter 4
4.3 Linear Arrays with Specified Pattern Nulls.
We may judiciously construct an array factor with nulls in specified directions
i , i = 1,., N 1 by choosing the zeros of the polynomial (4.15) as
ci = e jkd cosi , i = 1,.,

1
4.1 Introduction
This chapter will focus on array antennas. Arrays are antennas
comprised of multiple physically identical individual elements, which are
spatially arranged and excited with respect to each other in order to
create a specific directional

1
4.5 Broadside and end-fire arrays
A broadside array has its main beam perpendicular to the array axis. We
conclude that for a broadside array = 0.
Figure 4.13 plots the array factor for broadside arrays with = /2 and
varying . We observe that, for a con