ENERGY! THERMODYNAMICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
4.7
IDEAL PERFORMANCE ARTICLE
Heat engines
Heat engines convert heat or thermal energy
into useful work, often shaft power that can
be used to turn wheels for transportation or
generators

ENERGY! THERMODYNAMICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
COFFEE CUP HEAT LOSSES (OPTIONAL LAB EXERCISE)
Introduction
You should be able to perform this exercise in your kitchen using the equipment usually found
there plus a small list of items

Apparatus
You may find the things you need lying round at home, the links below are suggestions if you do not
have them to hand. You can also find similar items in other shops and online sales sites.
You will need:
a set of digital scales
a small jug of w

ON ENTROPY AND PENGUINS
I would like to talk about the efficiency of your local power station. In my case, that's Fiddlers
Ferry, which is a 2GW coal-fired power station, just upstream from Liverpool on the River
Mersey. But first let's talk about how mos

ON ENTROPY AND PENGUINS
In the depths of an Antarctic winter, you can find male adult Emperor penguins, huddled
together on the open ice, in colonies of several hundred birds. Each penguin has a precious
single egg, balanced on its feet, and sheltered by

Clausius statement
Can be summarised as
Q
T
small change in Q
0
for a cycle in which heat can be converted to work and work to heat
where means integration around cycle, with heat flow in as positive
A quantity whose cyclic integral is zero depends only o

ENERGY! THERMODYNAMICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
5.4
GIBBS FUNCTION ARTICLE
By definition the Gibbs Energy is
[1]
For an infinitesimal changes during a constant pressure process and substituting the definition
of enthalpy, H=U+pV or
[2]

5.6 Air powered car (worked example)
OK, so we're going to take a look now at a worked example for a compressed air
powered car. And we're going to make some assumptions, which I'm basing on a
prototype car that Peugeot showed at the 2014 Paris Auto Show.

ENERGY! THERMODYNAMICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
5.12
WRAP UP ARTICLE
Gibbs energy allows us to account for the entropy change in the environment due to a systembased process by using system properties and without analysing the environm

ENERGY! THERMODYNAMICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
GIBBS ENERGY ARTICLE
The second of thermodynamics demands that entropy should increase in all processes.
Spontaneous processes are ones that satisfy the second law and will occur without