1
Influence of Technology and
Software on Instruction Sets:
Up to the dawn of IBM 360
Arvind
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
M.I.T.
Based on the material prepared by
Arvind and Krste Asanovic
6.823 L2- 2
Arvind
Importance of Techno

Digital Logic/Design. L. 4
4
March 20, 2006
Canonical and standard forms
A Boolean (logic) function can be expressed in a variety of algebraic forms. For example
y = c a + c b = c(a + b) = c(c + b + a)
Each algebraic form entails specific gate implement

Lecture 8 (09/20/2002): Supplementary Note on POS with K-Map
Instructor: Yong Kim (Section 1)
During the lecture, I asked you to think about how would you derives a Product of Sum
expression given the K-map.
Product Of Sums Simplification
Remember, all th

Sum of Products and Product of Sums
A
B
S
C
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
sum-of-products
S = (A B) + (A B)
C = (A B)
product-of-sums
S = (A + B) (A + B)
C = (A + B) (A + B) (A + B)
A
B
C
S
EXAMPLE 6.4

Do not mix up or get confused between a dual expression which is generated by the
above rules and the complement (or inverted) expression which is generated by
applying the NOT operator. The rules are similar, but they mean very different things.
Finally,

In addition, there are simplification rules for Boolean equations. There are three
important groups of simplification rules. The first one uses just one variable:
A.A=A
A+A=A
The second group uses Boolean constants 0 and 1:
A.0=0
A.1=1
A+0=A
A+1=1
The thi

We can use the basic truth tables for AND, OR and NOT to evaluate the overall
truth table of a more complex expression. For example, to find out whether we
should take our umbrella or not we can evaluate the overall truth of the
proposition given in the a

Notice that we have changed the IF verbal construction into an equation with
binary variables. The block diagram is shown in Figure 2. To simplify the
handling of complex binary connectives, the mathematician George Boole
developed Boolean Algebra in the

The operation of almost all modern digital computers is based on two-valued or
binary systems. Binary systems were known in the ancient Chinese civilisation
and by the classical Greek philosophers who created a well structured binary
system, called propos

Computer Organization and Architecture
William Stallings
8th Edition
Chapter 5
Internal Memory
The two basic forms of semiconductor random access
memory (RAM) are dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static
RAM (SRAM).
SRAM is faster, more expensive, and less dense t

Section 3.5 - Minterms, Maxterms, Canonical Form & Standard Form
3.5
Canonical Forms
In general, the unique algebraic expression for any Boolean function
can be obtained from its truth table by using an OR operator to
combined all minterms for which the f