Cylinder head design has a significant effect on the efficiency of combustion and
hence the power output of the engine. The head may be flat, in which case the
combustion chamber resides within the cylinder and/or a depression in the
Function of camshaft
It is used for changing rotary motion into linear motion.
It controls the opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valve as
It is also used to operate the fuel pump, oil pump etc.
There are two cams for each cylind
Cam and Camshaft
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an
integral part. Camshafts can be made out of several different types of material.
These include Chilled iron castings, Billet Steel.
Depending on the location o
Function of piston ring
Provide a seal between the piston and cylinder wall.
Keep the lubricating oil from bypassing the piston and getting into
combustion chamber from the crankcase.
Provide a solid bridge to conduct the heat from piston to the cylin
In a reciprocating engine, the connecting rod connects the piston to the rank or
crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that
converts linear motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may also convert
1. Compression ring
Compression rings are usually made of cast iron. The purpose of compression
ring is to seal compression and combustion pressures in the combustion
Fig 3.1.11: Compression ring
Piston rings are circular rings and made of special steel alloy or cast iron. The
piston rings are fitted in the piston ring grooves. The piston rings are of the
1. Compression ring
2. Oil control ring
The piston is a cylindrical plug that moves up and down in the engine cylinder
and receives the energy or force of combustion. It transmits that energy to the
crankshaft through the connecting rod. The pistons are generally made of
Function of piston:
To compress the air fuel mixture.
Transmit the combustion pressure to the crankshaft through connecting
Force out the brunt gases during exhaust stroke.
Produce the vacuum in the cylinder to draw the air fuel mixture during
It is heavy big wheel and bolted to the rear end of the crankshaft between the
engine and the transmission. The flywheel usually made of cast iron. Flywheel
stores energy from the power strokes and smoothly delivers it to the drive train
22.214.171.124 Moving Parts
It is considered as the backbone of an engine whose function is to covert the
reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion with the help of
Crankshafts are made from forged or cast steel.
Intake manifolds are generally used for carrying and distributing fuel to internal
combustion engine cylinder. Intake Manifold is normally made of Cast Iron.In
case of petrol engine, cylinder receives the air fuel mixture through intake
The waste products of combustion are expelled to the atmosphere by the
exhaust manifold. It is normally made of cast iron. It must be fitted opposite to
the fuel supply to avoid the fire risk. Exhaust manifold should have the smooth
A head-gasket seals the joint between the cylinder head and the cylinder block.
Head gasket installation becomes extremely important in sealing between an
aluminum head and a cast iron block.
Figure 3.1.4: Gasket of motorcycle engine
A combustion chamber is the part of an engine in which fuel is burned. This is
the space between cylinder and cylinder head when piston at TDC.
Spark plug for petrol engine and injector for diesel engine is located at the
An automobile consists of various systems. Any system absence makes an
automobile incomplete. Among different systems the basic systems are:
2. Fuel supply system
3. Lubrication system
4. Cooling system
5. Transmission system
It is a hole inside the cylinder block which contains the liner piston. Liner is used
inside the cylinder to prevent permanent wear of cylinder bore. There are two
kinds of liners are commonly used as follows:
1. Dry Liner: Dry liners are pres
a) Cylinder block
The cylinder block is the foundation of the engine. The cylinder block provides
the smooth cylindrical bores in which the piston moves to and fro in order to
Most blocks are cast from grey cast iro
3.1.1 What is engine?
3.1.2 Engine Parts
3.2.1 What is Fuel System?
3.2.2 Function of fuel system
3.2.3 Type of fuel system
3.2.5 Basic c
3.1.2 Engine Parts
Main parts of engines are as follows:
Cam and Camsha
What is engine?
An engine is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical
motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external
combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create heat, which
2.8 Body design
Automobile body designing includes both exterior & interior designing.
But it basically means exterior designing.
2.8.1 Designing considerations for body:
Body designing includes several factors. Of them mainly 3 points are
2.7 Chassis design
2.7.1 What is chassis?
A chassis consists of an internal framework that supports a man-made
object in its construction and use. It is analogous to an animal's
skeleton. An example of a chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle,
2.5.2 Fuel cell car
A fuel cell car uses fuel cell technology to produce the electricity
that powers a car.
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also called Proton
Exchange Membrane fuel cells uses hydrogen fuel and oxygen from
the air to prod
2.4 History of the Automobile
Automobile engineering has a long history. Here only the early
development in the 19th century is briefed shortly.
The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the
creation of steam engine automobiles capable
2.6 Automobile Designing
2.6.1 Designing factors
An automobile design is not that simple. Lots of factors are to be
considered for a successful design. While designing an automobile the
following factors are considereda.
Fuel consumption ra