Psych Week 1
Chapter 1: Introducing Social Psychology
-We humans are first of all beings in a situation. We cannot be distinguished from our situations,
for they form us and decide our possibilities. (Sartre)
What is Social Psychology?
Roots of prejudice
Competition and conflict between groups
(not competing, all contributing to the problem)
1. Competition and conflict
Realistic group conflict theory
definition in textbook
conflict over ma
Genes and Culture (nature vs nurture)
Individual action is emphasized
Happiness is experienced by the individual
What is culture
Culture is a collective phenomenon
Culture is acquired through socialization
Group Polarization Explanation
We unconsciously mimic group members' posture, mannerisms, or facial expressions.
IV: confederate rubbed his or her face versus shook his or her foot
DV: participant behavior. (Number of instances
Week 2 SELF!
Self-knowledge: self-reference effect!
Organization of self-knowledge: self-schemas, e.g., tell participants
that individuals are categorized as independent, dependent, or
aschematic, and participants rated themselves on these traits. A
What is a group?
- 2 or more individuals, some relationship among them
primary groups: small intimate groups
social groups: groups in public settings, socially oriented groups
associations: aggregations of individuals that formed spontaneo
- Switch from evaluations to likes/dislikes
- Beliefs and feelings related to a person or an event
where do attitudes come from?
Affect, behavior, cognition -> behavior -> affect, behavior, cognition
Affect = feelings evoked by an obje
Early work on human learning, mission was to evaluate the training
programs and films being prepared for American troops in the US and
Europe (persuading soldiers
Stimulus perception <-> information storage, retrieval, and processing <-> overt response
- Among other things, social cognition researchers study
o Perception and interpretation of events
Principles leading to a general approach:
- William James on the structure of self-knowledge
- The self is complex and yet it is coherent
o Self schemas, multiplicities of selves
- Sources of self-knowledge
- Self-relevant motives and their effects
Subjective experience: c
Culture, Genes, and Gender
Systematic differences in eastern and western stories of 3 Little Pigs
Culture as nurture, genes as nature
o Culture: collective phenomenon, acquired through socialization
East: collective action is emphasized, happiness is ex
Intro to studying aggression:
- Is an external behavior
- Social behavior
- Intended to hurt
o NOT ALL intentional acts that hurt others are aggressive
Forms and functions of aggression:
Forms: HOW the aggression act is expressed, physical vs verbal, rel
Lecture notes: 11/22/16
- Physical attractiveness: only predictor of desire to second date was attractiveness
- Why? Evolutionary psych (as seen in peacock)
o Reflects well on oneself to be with attractive person, indirect benefits
Mere exposure (Zajonc, 1968) & Subliminally Priming & Preconscious Automaticity
Repeated exposure to an initially neutral or positive stimulus increases liking for it
Example: preconscious automaticity example: subliminal priming (a
Evidence for the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty and Cacioppo, 1984)
Students (non-seniors) heard a message regarding the introduction of a comprehensive
exam that all seniors would need to pass in order to graduate
Three variables were manipulated
Latency Measure & Sequential Priming Task (Fazio, 1995)
Facts about priming
People are faster to determine that a target is good or bad when preceded (primed) by
an item of the same valence
E.g. when primed by cancer, people are faster to say crime is
Psych Week 2
Chapter 2: Social Thinking
Spotlights and Illusions: What do they Teach us about Ourselves?
-The spotlight effect is the belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and
behavior than they really are.
-The illusion of transp
Psych Chapter 3
As a Chinese proverb says, Two-thirds of what we see is behind our eyes.
How do we perceive our social worlds?
-We respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it
-Priming is activating particular associations in memory.
Psych Chapter 4
The ancestor of every action is a thought. ~Emerson
-Attitude is a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone (often
rooted in ones beliefs, and exhibited in ones feelings and intended behavior).
-ABCs of atti
Psych Chapter 5
How are we influence by human nature and cultural diversity?
-Before they can walk, babies will display a moral sense by disapproving whats wrong or
-If we could trace our ancestors back 100,000 or more years, we would see that we
Psych Chapter 7
Persuasion is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
-The bad we call propaganda and the good we call education
What paths lead us to persuasion?
-To elicit action, a persuasive message must clear
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world
What is a group?
-A group is two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence
one another and perceive on another as us
Psych Chapter 9
What is the nature and power of prejudice?
-Prejudice is a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
-Prejudice is ultimately an attitude.
-A Stereotype is a belief about the personal attributes of a group of pe
Psych Chapter 10
What is Aggression?
-Aggression is physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
-Animal display social aggression, characterized by displays of rage, and silent aggression, as
when a predator stalks its pray.
Psych Chapter 11
-Need to belong is a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing,
-We are social animals; we need to belong.
-Satisfy the need to belong in balance with two other human needto feel autonomy
[email protected] Chapter 1 Book Social Psychology Social Thinking Social Influence Social Relations Social Neuroscience Culture Social Representations *Hindsight Bias- War story by Fischhoff- probability of events occuring Theory Hypothesis Field
Reciprocity: repay favors (Regan, 1971)
Study of art appreciation done with parits of subjects (one really a confederate)
Confederate behaves as likeable vs non-likeable person
Confederate comes back after 2 mins break with vs without a coke for the subj
Theory (Free Rides)
People tend to exert less efforts when they pool efforts with others toward a common goal
Latane et al. (1979)
IV: People induced to believe that they are shouting and clapping with a group v.s. alone
DV: The actual nois
Mood effects (Forgas 1998)
Students in library found pictures in an envelope
Humorous cartoons or car accidents
Stranger approached and requested some paper (impolitely)
Negative mood: more likely to resist the request