A. G1: growing and synthesizing proteins
B. S: DNA replication
C. G2: more growing and synthesizing proteins
D. (G1, S, G2) are interphase
E. M: mitosis
F. G0 cell stops dividing and gets the fuck out of there
A. Prophase chromos
Q1. What do MRSA and VRSA stand for?
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus
Q2. Which of the following is NOT a way in which bacteria acquire antibiotic
a. Formation of pores i
Q1. How has our outlook on the relationship between genes and proteins evolved in just the last 15 years?
What is the advantage of alternative splicing and how does it shed light on our common origin?
Scientists used to believe that each gene coded for a
Q1) What are the two different approaches that can be used to clone human DNA? Compare
and contrast the two.
The first approach is to apply reverse transcriptase to mRNA to produce cDNA. Since the
spliceosome splices out the introns from the mRNA, the cDN
Discussion Questions: What Makes Us Human?
1. How do we identify the parts of the human genome that are different from chimpanzees?
We identify the parts of the genome that have changed the most since humans and chimpanzees
diverged. These probably repres
Q1. Are non-coding regions of DNA important in DNA fingerprinting? Why or why not?
Non-coding regions are very important in DNA fingerprinting in fact, the thirteen STR regions
the FBI uses to fingerprint people are all in non-coding regions. This is beca
Q1. What is the importance of certain lifestyle in the devils, which aid in the spread of cancer?
Would this exact same contagion pattern be relevant to another species, lets say humans?
During sex and combat, devils bite each other, often on the face. Th
Q1. How did Huxley's views on selection differ from Darwin's?
Huxley believed that selection operated only on large differences whereas Darwin believed that
it operated on small differences over long periods of time. Huxley held that selection acted of
Q1. Describe how the microbiome can regulate stress.
Microbes affect the nervous system by producing compounds that interact with the nervous
system. For example, these compounds can block neurotransmitters sending stress-causing
messages, such as GABA. S
Gram Staining; Hans Chirstian Gram 1884
Bacterial Cell Wall
Gram Staining and the Cell Wall
Shapes of Bacteria
Whats Ailing Gram?
Record Your Finding. Research Possibilit
Cells: Prokaryotes and
First cells evolved 3.8
billion years ago.
much different from
today (no O2, for
Early cells used
different sources of
carbon and energy
EG Nisbet & NH Sleep,
Mechanisms of Evolution
Natural Selection arises from these facts:
Organisms in a population vary
The variation may be passed on to offspring
Not all individuals survive to reproduce, or produce the same number
of surviving offspring
Individuals with some
Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence.
Mutations can be defined as point mutations,
affecting only one or a few bases
Or can involve large segments of DNA
Or even entire chromosomes
For now, we will discuss only point mutations
Causes of DNA
DNA Is the Genetic Material
Role in translation of genetic information
Control of gene expression
The components of nucleic acids
Formation of Phosphodiester
RNA vs. DNA
RNA Has Several Different Functions
An Overview of Protein Functions
Size and Shapes of Some
Glucagon is the smallest protein, 29 amino acids. Signals low levels of sugar
in the blood. Peptide hormone.
Titin is the largest, 34,000 amino acids. Part of the contraction machi
How genomes are sequenced
How genomes are annotated
A genome is the totality of an individual s
It includes coding portions and non-codin
Coding DNA has the information for making
A genome is the entirety of the genetic
material of a cell or an organism
The genome comprises coding sequences (genes)
and non-coding sequences
E. coli: ~ 4,300 genes
Homo sapiens: ~20,000 genes
A gene is expressed when its functional
product is manuf
The Process of Life: Cell Division
As a part of life every cell will reproduce
Cellular reproduction occurs via cell division
Different cells employ different mechanisms
Nobel in Chemistry 1958, structure of insulin
Nobel in Chemistry, DNA sequencing
The other hand
Cut a hand from some monkeys.
Sequencing Reaction (What you used to put in the test
Core Bio Section 10130
A Mysterious Method of Gene Control Sheds its Secrets
The Silver-Russel Syndrome(children with difficulty growing) and the BeckwithWiedemann Syndrome(children with oversized body parts) were found to be
Ecological Interactions: symbiotic relationship (symbiosis)
1, mutualism-both organisms benefit (bees and flower)
2, commensalism-one benefit, the other unaffected (cow and fly-eating bird)
3, parasitism-one benefit, the other harmed (lice+ human)-does no
Discuss why the 16S sequence is very useful for bacterial species identification as well as in
evolutionary studies to determine species relatedness (remember lecture last Monday and
do your research).
These genes are present in all bacteria, and have con
I CHAPTER 6
Ionic Basis of the '
t rest, a neuron has a steady electrical potential across its plasma membrane, the inside
being negative with respect to the outside. In the neuron, the intracellular potassium
concentration is high compa
NOCICEPTORS AND THE PERCEPTION OF PAIN
Alan Fein, Ph.D.
Revised February 2012
NOCICEPTORS AND THE PERCEPTION OF PAIN
Alan Fein, Ph.D.
Professor of Cell Biology
University of Connecticut Health Center
263 Farmington Ave.
Farmington, CT 06030-3505
D. Hanck ([email protected],
April 21, 2014: Introduction (heart anatomy etc.) and Electrical Activity
NOT ON EXAM #1
Physiology textbooks vary in their coverage of the material in this lecture. Some
Study questions covering Osadjans exercise lectures
note: some of these questions come from the video recording posted on Cahlk.
1. Name 6 different ways you could measure metabolic rate in an individual (dont worry about
the practicality of each method,
Reversal Potential of a synaptic response
The Reversal Potential Rule
if Erev > Threshold, the input is EXCITATORY
if Erev < Threshold, the input is INHIBITORY
Long-Term Potentiation - LTP
Long-Term Depression LTD
Skeletal Muscle Physiology
Dottie Hanck 2014
Two lecture days: Molecular basis of contraction
Review and expand what to know
about control of motor movements
Any basic physiology text or
I've put online excerpts f